Fletcher v. United States, Case No. 02-CV-427-GKF-FHM

Decision Date31 March 2012
Docket NumberCase No. 02-CV-427-GKF-FHM
PartiesWILLIAM S. FLETCHER, et al., Plaintiffs, v. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, et al., Defendants.
CourtU.S. District Court — Northern District of Oklahoma
OPINION AND ORDER

This matter comes before the court on the Motion to Dismiss plaintiffs' Third Amended Complaint, filed by defendants the United States of America, the Department of the Interior, Kenneth Salazar in his official capacity as Secretary of the Interior, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and Larry EchoHawk in his official capacity as Assistant Secretary of the Interior-Indian Affairs (collectively, the "Federal Defendants"). For the reasons set forth below, the Motion to Dismiss [Dkt. #1126] is granted.

I. Procedural History

Plaintiffs filed this case on May 31, 2002. Their complaint asserted four causes of action: (1) a claim that the Federal Defendants violated their right to political association and participation in the Osage government; (2) a claim that the Federal Defendants breached their trust responsibilities by (a) eliminating the plaintiffs' right to participate or vote in Osage tribal elections, and (b) allowing mineral royalties to be alienated to persons and entities not of Osage blood; (3) a Fifth Amendment takings claim; and (4) a claim that the federal regulationsregarding the Osage Tribe violated their right to participate in their government and the defendants' trust responsibilities.

The Federal Defendants moved to dismiss the complaint for failure to join the principal governing body of the Osage Tribe,1 the Osage Tribal Council, as a necessary and indispensable party. The Court granted the motion and dismissed the complaint. Plaintiffs appealed, but during the appeal, Congress passed the Reaffirmation of Certain Rights of the Osage Tribe, Public Law 108-431, 118 Stat. 2609. That statute maintains the system for assigning mineral interests but granted the Osage Tribe the right to determine membership for other purposes. Accordingly, the plaintiffs obtained their first request—that they obtain the right to participate in the affairs of the Osage Nation as members. The Tenth Circuit held that the district court had jurisdiction over plaintiffs' breach of trust and takings claims for violation of a statutory duty to pay royalties only to tribal members, as plaintiffs did not seek "money damages" under 5 U.S.C. §702. The panel vacated the dismissal and remanded to determine whether the Osage Tribal Council was a necessary and indispensable party with regard to the breach of trust and takings claims.

On remand, the plaintiffs filed a First Amended Complaint. Federal Defendants moved to dismiss on the following grounds: (a) failure to join other indispensable parties, including the Osage Nation and non-Osage owners of headrights2; (b) lack of jurisdiction for failure to comply with the final agency action prerequisites to judicial review under the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. § 701; and (c) failure to challenge an actionable final agency action within the applicable statute of limitations. The Court granted the motion in part and denied it in part,holding that: (a) the Osage Nation was not a required party under Rule 19(a); (b) non-Osage headright owners were required parties because plaintiffs sought to terminate their headright interests in royalty income; and (c) it was impossible to discern from the face of the First Amended Complaint the specific agency actions and/or inactions the plaintiffs were challenging. The Court directed plaintiffs to file a Second Amended Complaint adding all non-Osage headright owners as defendants and identifying with specificity the challenged agency actions and/or inactions.

Plaintiffs filed their Second Amended Complaint, which joined approximately 1,700 additional defendants3 to the lawsuit. However, because plaintiffs again failed to specify the agency actions being challenged, the Court directed plaintiffs to file yet another amended complaint. [Dkt. #213 & #231 at pp. 16, 27, 48]. Plaintiffs filed their Third Amended Complaint on May 6, 2010. [Dkt. #985]. Plaintiffs also filed a Motion to Certify a plaintiffs' class, and a group of defendants filed a Motion to Certify Class of Defendants on Limited Issues and for Appointment of Class Counsel.

Many of the non-Osage headright owner defendants filed motions to dismiss. In an Opinion and Order filed March 31, 2011 [Dkt. #1122], the Court granted the Motion to Dismiss filed by defendant Ben T. Benedum for failure of the Third Amended Complaint to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. The Court concluded that Congress has always permitted non-Indian ownership of headrights, and therefore plaintiffs are mistaken as a matter of law when they contend that a non-Indian cannot hold legal or equitable title. In a subsequent order, the Court dismissed the remaining 1,700 non-Osage headright owners for failure to state a claimupon which relief can be granted. [Dkt. #1143]. In addition, the Court held they were not required parties pursuant to Rule 19.

II. Historical Background

In 1872, Congress established a reservation of approximately one and a half million acres for the Osage Tribe of Indians in north central Indian Territory. See Act of June 5, 1872, ch. 310, 17 Stat. 228 (An Act to Confirm to the Great and Little Osage Indians a Reservation in the Indian Territory). The first oil and gas lease of the reservation was made in 1896, followed by substantial discoveries of oil and gas in 1904 and 1905. COHEN'S HANDBOOK OF FEDERAL INDIAN LAW § 4.07[1][d][ii], p. 311 (2005 ed.). "The Osage Nation quickly accumulated a large tribal trust fund in the Treasury from oil and gas leases, sales of townsite lots, permit taxes, and sale of an earlier tribal reservation in Kansas." Id. (citing McCurdy v. U.S., 246 U.S. 263 (1918)). Tribal wealth made the Osages targets of various forms of fraud and overreaching. Id.

In 1906, Congress passed the Osage Allotment Act in an attempt to individualize much of the Osage tribal property and to provide some protection for tribal members. See Act of June 28, 1906, ch. 3572, 34 Stat. 539 (An Act for the Division of the Lands and Funds of the Osage Indians in Oklahoma Territory and for Other Purposes) (the "1906 Act"). The 1906 Act directed the preparation of a tribal membership roll composed of persons whose names were on the roll maintained by the United States Indian agent at the Osage Agency, as it existed on January 1, 1906, and their children born by July 1, 1907. See 1906 Act, § 1. The mineral estate underlying the Osage lands was "reserved to the Osage tribe." 1906 Act, § 3. The royalties received from the mineral estate, less certain amounts retained for tribal purposes, is paid per capita on a quarterly basis to the 2,229 persons on the tribal roll, their heirs, devisees, and assigns. See 1906Act, § 4. Most persons of Osage Indian ancestry own no headrights, and thus receive no royalty income. COHEN, p. 313. Some persons own more than one headright, or own fractional shares of headrights, and some headrights are owned by non-Osages. Id. The trust period was originally set at twenty-five years, but has been extended several times. In 1978, Congress extended the tribal trust "in perpetuity" and severly limited succession to headrights by non-Indians. See Pub. L. No. 95-496, §§ 2(a), 5(c), and 7, 92 Stat. 1660 (1978).

III. The Third Amended Complaint

Plaintiffs allege the Federal Defendants have breached their trust obligations "by failing to distribute Osage mineral royalties only to persons who are Osage Indians by blood, and those who may by statute be allowed to receive distributions of trust property." Third Amended Complaint, ¶ 3 (emphasis in original). Plaintiffs "make no claim against the Osage Nation or the Osage Mineral Estate itself; nor is there any dispute regarding the amounts which the Osage Nation has obtained from the Osage Mineral Estate. Instead, the Plaintiffs' claims relate to the Federal Defendants' SECTION 4 ROYALTY PAYMENTS made during the pendency of this litigation, and those to be made in the future." Third Amended Complaint, ¶ 30.

The Third Amended Complaint asserts three causes of action. In their First Claim for Relief - Breach of the Federal Trust Responsibility - plaintiffs allege the Federal Defendants have breached their trust obligations by improperly distributing trust assets to persons who are not Osage Indians or their lawful heirs, and by failing to account to plaintiffs for all funds held in trust, including all royalty distributions. In their Second Claim for Relief - entitled Failure to Account and Deprivation of Property - plaintiffs allege that, because the Federal Defendants have allowed royalty payments to be distributed to non-Osage persons, and because the FederalDefendants have failed to account for and audit their actions, the plaintiffs have been deprived of property in violation of the Fifth Amendment. In their Third Claim for Relief - entitled Administrative Action Not in Accordance with Law and Violative or in Contravention of the Plaintiffs' Rights - plaintiffs allege, upon information and belief, that the Federal Defendants have taken administrative actions, or have failed to take action, in ways that are not in accordance with law, including: (a) approving "family settlement agreements" in the course of contested probates contrary to the explicit directives in Osage Indian wills, which has resulted in the alienation of Section 4 royalty interests in favor of non-Indians and the diminishment of the Osage mineral estate; (b) facilitating and encouraging the "legal" adoption of adult non-Indians by Osage Indians as a means of ostensibly complying with the 1978 Act and its explicit prohibitions against alienation to non-Indians; (c) permitting the sale of Section 4 Royalty Interests by non-Indians in derogation of the right of repurchase specifically reserved to Osage remaindermen of the original...

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