Fortin v. Ox-Bow Marina, Inc.

Decision Date13 August 1990
Docket NumberOX-BOW
Parties, 1990 A.M.C. 2866, 12 UCC Rep.Serv.2d 691 Robert J. FORTIN et al. 1 v.MARINA, INC.
CourtUnited States State Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts Supreme Court

Benjamin A. Barnes, Northampton, for defendant.

Richard T. Tucker, Worcester, for plaintiffs.


LYNCH, Justice.

The plaintiffs, Robert and Marie Fortin, filed this action to seek money damages arising from their brief ownership of a trouble-plagued thirty-two foot Bayliner Conquest power boat, which they had purchased in 1985 from the defendant, Ox-Bow Marina, Inc. Relief was sought under the Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.) (G.L. c. 106 [1988 ed.] ), on the grounds of revocation of acceptance and breach of warranties; G.L. c. 93A (1988 ed.), alleging unfair trade practices; and on common law negligence. The matter was tried before a judge in the Superior Court, sitting without a jury. The judge ruled in favor of the defendant on the warranty and c. 93A counts, but also ruled that the Fortins had effectively revoked acceptance of the boat and awarded damages in the amount of $24,364.96. Included in that judgment, as incidental and consequential damages, respectively, were the sales tax and the interest paid by the Fortins on the loan that they obtained when they purchased the Bayliner. The defendant timely appealed, and we transferred the case here on our own motion. 2 We affirm the judgment.

The judge found the following pertinent facts. The Fortins, owners of a twenty-one foot Larson powerboat, were interested in "trading up" to a larger vessel that they could use off Cape Cod. At a Springfield boat show they purchased from Ox-Bow the Bayliner Conquest after agreeing on a trade-in allowance for their Larson, and after having been assured of delivery in time for the boating season and of repair service in the Cape Cod area.

The new boat was delivered to the Ox-Bow Marina on April 23, 1985. Much preparation work was needed in order for the boat to be ready for use, including installation of the cabin top and pulpit, installation of special equipment and optional items, and electrical work. Furthermore, the boat arrived with ill-fitting engine latches, marred gel coat in the cockpit, a missing bow eye, and numerous scrapes on the hull near the water line. The Fortins inspected the boat on May 8, 1985, and called to Ox-Bow's attention a number of defects which they had observed. The Ox-Bow sales representative assured them that all the defects would be cured by the time of closing on the boat, set for May 21.

On the day of the closing, which took place on Ox-Bow's premises, the Fortins checked their boat and noticed that none of the preparation work had been started on the Bayliner. They expressed reluctance to close on the boat until it was operational, but Ox-Bow's representative at the closing assured them that not only would the boat be completely ready shortly, but that, if the Fortins did not close that day, Ox-Bow would charge them interest and storage fees until the transaction was completed. The Fortins went ahead with the closing, at which time they borrowed $51,500 from Horizon Financial, which was disbursed to complete the transaction. They wrote a check in the amount of $6,259.56 to Ox-Bow, representing the difference between the original purchase price as adjusted for extras bought for the boat, and the amount available from the Horizon loan.

About a week after the closing the Fortins inspected the boat at the suggestion of an Ox-Bow representative and made a list of items that needed to be repaired or corrected. These items included a nonfunctioning hot water pump; a broken pedestal seat; broken trim tabs; a nonfunctioning flush mechanism in the marine toilet system; chips in the wood trim; stains on the platform; a crack in the swimming platform where it fastened to the stern of the boat; and a broken door latch. In addition, none of the special equipment ordered by the Fortins had yet been installed. On the weekend of May 31 to June 1, 1985, the plaintiffs discovered and reported that the marine toilet was not functioning properly.

The boat was transported to Hyannis on June 21, 1985. On delivery the Fortins noted again that most of the original defects had not been repaired, that during transit the hull had been scraped below the water line near the keel, and that the inside of the boat was filthy. The Fortins complained, but nonetheless accepted the boat and paid additional fees for electronic work, gas, transportation charges, and cleaning of the toilet system.

The Fortins set out on their maiden voyage on June 22, 1985, and discovered that the depth finder and marine radio that Ox-Bow had installed were not working. Then, within one hour of travel, the starboard engine overheated and had to be shut down. The Fortins' Bayliner was powered by two inboard-outboard engines. The boat returned to the slip on one engine, and the Fortins immediately notified Ox-Bow of the problems with the engine and the electronic equipment. Ox-Bow's representative promised the Fortins that repairs would be performed within the next few days.

Ox-Bow's service representative arrived on July 8 and worked on the engine only. He was informed at that time that, in addition to the other defects, the fuel gauge was not working and remained constantly in the "full" position.

The Fortins remained in touch with Ox-Bow Marina during the course of the next month, as they awaited repairs of the defects. In the meantime they used the boat for approximately five weekends. During the fifth weekend, on August 11, 1985, the starboard engine overheated again. The Fortins again returned to shore on one engine. Inspection suggested by Ox-Bow's repair department failed to reveal the source of the trouble, and the Fortins were informed that Ox-Bow was unable to provide service to the Cape in the near future. The Ox-Bow representative suggested that they take the Bayliner to another marina where warranty work might be done on the engine. Between August 11 and September 3, 1985, numerous telephone calls were made between the Fortins and Ox-Bow, as the latter attempted to get various engine dealers to look at the boat on Cape Cod, without success. During this period the Fortins used the boat at its slip only and did not travel in it.

On September 3, 1985, Ox-Bow sent a truck to Hyannis to haul the Fortins' Bayliner back to Northampton for repairs. At that point the marine toilet system was malfunctioning, and the hoses from the holding tank were leaking from the buildup of accumulated wastes. As a result, a foul odor permeated the boat. The electric bilge pump was also malfunctioning, and water from the bilge compartment had risen to the point where it was causing rugs in the galley to float. Additional repairs were needed, and some of the original defects had never been redressed.

By October 1985, the hoses in the toilet system were replaced, and a new starboard engine was installed, but none of the other defects had been repaired. On October 31, 1985, the Fortins, through counsel, notified Ox-Bow in writing that they were revoking their acceptance of the Bayliner, and seeking a refund of their purchase price in addition to reimbursement for expenses incurred as a result of their problems with the boat that summer.

During the two-year life of the loan on the boat the plaintiffs incurred $11,474.96 in interest. The judge found there was insufficient evidence to determine what portion of this amount represented interest that the Fortins would have been obligated to pay on their previous loan. They also paid $2,250 in sales tax on the Bayliner.

The defendant challenges the Superior Court judgment on a number of grounds. First, it contends that the judge erred in ruling that the Fortins' revocation of acceptance was effective. Second, Ox-Bow argues that the judge incorrectly awarded, as consequential and incidental damages, the Fortins' interest payments on their purchase-money loan, and the sales tax they paid on the Bayliner. Third, Ox-Bow asserts that the judge should not have ruled in its favor on the breach of implied warranty of merchantability claim, conceding that such a breach existed, with the result that an award of consequential damages would not be warranted at all.

1. Revocation of acceptance. The Fortins' rights in this regard are governed by art. 2 of the U.C.C. There is no dispute that the Fortins, having inspected the boat on several occasions earlier and after noting a number of defects, did not reject the boat, as they would have been entitled to do under G.L. c. 106, § 2-602. However, a buyer may revoke an acceptance providing that he or she can show that the "nonconformity" in the goods that the buyer has purchased "substantially impairs [their] value to him [or her]," c. 106, § 2-608(1); that the buyer accepted the goods on the "reasonable assumption that [their] nonconformity would be cured and it has not been seasonably cured," § 2-608(1)(a), and that he or she revoked acceptance "within a reasonable time after the buyer discovers or should have discovered the ground for it." § 2-608(2). The judge found that the Fortins had effectively revoked their acceptance of the Bayliner under these principles.

The issues of whether a revocation was effective, whether defects substantially impaired the value of goods, and whether notice of revocation was timely, are all matters to be resolved by the fact finder. Jeffco Fibres, Inc. v. Dario Diesel Serv., Inc., 13 Mass.App.Ct. 1029, 1031, 433 N.E.2d 918 (1982). See Sumner v. Fel-Air, Inc., 680 P.2d 1109, 1116-1117 (Alaska 1984); Conte v. Dwan Lincoln-Mercury, Inc., 172 Conn. 112, 121, 374 A.2d 144 (1976); Black v. Don Schmid Motor, Inc., 232 Kan. 458, 462, 657 P.2d 517 (1983); Durfee v. Rod Baxter Imports, Inc., 262 N.W.2d 349, 354 (Minn.1977); Welch v....

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