Hope For Families & Cmty. Serv. Inc. v. Warren

Decision Date30 June 2010
Docket NumberCase No. 3:06-CV-1113-WKW[WO].
Citation721 F.Supp.2d 1079
PartiesHOPE FOR FAMILIES & COMMUNITY SERVICE, INC., et al., Plaintiffs, v. David WARREN, in his official capacity as the Sheriff of Macon County, Macon County Greyhound Park, Inc., and Milton McGregor, Defendants.
CourtU.S. District Court — Middle District of Alabama

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Michael Todd Sansbury, Robert Keeling Spotswood, Grace Long Kipp, John Singleton Pitts Samford, Spotswood, Sansom & Sansbury LLC, Birmingham, AL, for Plaintiffs.

Hilary Yother Parks, James Harold Anderson, Beers, Anderson, Jackson, Patty & Fawal, P.C., Montgomery, AL, Augusta Salem Dowd, Hope Marshall, John Mark White, U.W. Clemon, Katherine Rogers Brown, Rebecca Depalma, White Arnold & Dowd PC, Khristi Doss Driver, Patricia C. Diak, Peter John Tepley, William Mayfield Slaughter, Peter John Tepley, Haskell Slaughter Young & Rediker, LLC, Birmingham, AL, Charlanna White Spencer, John Merrill Bolton, III, Doy Leale McCall, III, Hill, Hill, Carter, Franco, Cole & Black P.C., Montgomery, AL, for Defendants.

MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER

W. KEITH WATKINS, District Judge.

Given the complexity of this case and for the reader's convenience, this opinion is prefaced with the following table of contents.

                +--------------------------------+
                ¦I.  ¦INTRODUCTION          ¦1086¦
                +----+----------------------+----¦
                +----+----------------------+----¦
                ¦II. ¦JURISDICTION AND VENUE¦1088¦
                +----+----------------------+----¦
                +----+----------------------+----¦
                ¦III.¦STANDARD OF REVIEW    ¦1088¦
                +----+----------------------+----¦
                +----+----------------------+----¦
                ¦IV. ¦BACKGROUND            ¦1090¦
                +--------------------------------+
                 
                +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦A.¦Ratification of Amendment No. 744                                   ¦1090¦
                ++--+--------------------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦B.¦Parties                                                             ¦1090¦
                ++--+--------------------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦C.¦Sheriff Warren's Rules and Regulations Governing Bingo in Macon     ¦1093¦
                ¦¦  ¦County                                                              ¦    ¦
                +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                 
                +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦1.¦Original Rules (December 2003)                                    ¦1093¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦2.¦First Amended Rules (June 2004)                                   ¦1097¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦3.¦Second Amended Rules (January 2005)                               ¦1098¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦4.¦VictoryLand's Electronic Bingo Licenses                           ¦1100¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦5.¦VictoryLand's and the Charities' Income                           ¦1102¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦6.¦Lucky Palace's Pursuit of Class B Bingo Operations in Macon County¦1103¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦7.¦This Lawsuit (December 2006)                                      ¦1106¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦8.¦Third Amended Rules (December 2008)                               ¦1107¦
                +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                 
                +-------------------+
                +--+-----------+----¦
                ¦V.¦DISCUSSION ¦1108¦
                +-------------------+
                 
                +--------------------------------+
                ¦¦A.¦RICO (Counts I and II) ¦1108¦
                +--------------------------------+
                 
                +----------------------------+
                ¦¦¦1.¦§ 1962(c)-Count I ¦1108¦
                +----------------------------+
                 
                +-----------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦a.¦Bribery: Alabama Code § 13A-10-61(a)¦1109¦
                +-----------------------------------------------+
                 
                +------------------------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦¦i.  ¦Nature of the Theory                          ¦1109¦
                +++++----+----------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦¦ii. ¦Grounds for Summary Judgment                  ¦1110¦
                +++++----+----------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦¦    ¦Thing of Value, Pecuniary Benefit, and Corrupt¦    ¦
                ¦¦¦¦¦iii.¦                                              ¦1110¦
                ¦¦¦¦¦    ¦Influence                                     ¦    ¦
                +++++----+----------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦¦iv. ¦Alabama Bribery Law                           ¦1112¦
                +++++----+----------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦¦v.  ¦Application                                   ¦1115¦
                +------------------------------------------------------------+
                 
                +---------------------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦b.¦Honest Services Mail and Wire Fraud: § 1962(c)¦1119¦
                +---------------------------------------------------------+
                 
                +-------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦¦i.  ¦Nature of the Theory         ¦1119¦
                +++++----+-----------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦¦ii. ¦Initial Observation: Skilling¦1120¦
                +++++----+-----------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦¦iii.¦Grounds for Summary Judgment ¦1122¦
                +++++----+-----------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦¦iv. ¦§ 1964(c): RICO Standing     ¦1123¦
                +-------------------------------------------+
                 
                +-------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦¦¦a.¦Injury to Business or Property¦1123¦
                ++++++--+------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦¦¦b.¦Proximate Cause               ¦1125¦
                +-------------------------------------------+
                 
                +-----------------------------+
                ¦¦¦2.¦§ 1962(d)-Count II ¦1134¦
                +-----------------------------+
                 
                +---------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦B.¦Equal Protection (Counts III and IV)¦1134¦
                +---------------------------------------------+
                 
                +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦1.¦Vice Activities                                                   ¦1136¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦2.¦Facial Challenges to the Second Amended Rules (The First Category)¦1137¦
                +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                 
                +--------------------------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦a.¦Rational Basis Review                              ¦1137¦
                ++++--+---------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦b.¦Existing Facility Requirement                      ¦1140¦
                ++++--+---------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦c.¦Numerical Licensing Requirements                   ¦1145¦
                ++++--+---------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦d.¦Plaintiffs' Arguments Against Rational Basis Review¦1150¦
                +--------------------------------------------------------------+
                 
                +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦3.¦Disparate Impact (Second Category)                                 ¦1153¦
                +++--+-------------------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦4.¦Unequal Administration of a Facially Neutral Statute (Third        ¦1155¦
                ¦¦¦  ¦Category)                                                          ¦    ¦
                +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                 
                +--------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦a.¦Nature of the Theory ¦1155¦
                ++++--+---------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦b.¦Analysis             ¦1156¦
                +--------------------------------+
                 
                +--------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦¦i.¦Intentional Discrimination¦1156¦
                +--------------------------------------+
                 
                +-------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦¦¦(a)¦E & T Realty and Olech ¦1156¦
                ++++++---+-----------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦¦¦(b)¦Analysis               ¦1159¦
                +-------------------------------------+
                 
                +--------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦¦ii.¦Similarly Situated ¦1162¦
                +--------------------------------+
                 
                +----------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦c.¦Conclusion ¦1167¦
                +----------------------+
                 
                +----------------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦5.¦§ 1983 Conspiracy to Deny Equal Protection¦1167¦
                +----------------------------------------------------+
                 
                +----------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦a.¦Defendants' Summary Judgment Motion¦1167¦
                ++++--+-----------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦b.¦Plaintiffs' Summary Judgment Motion¦1168¦
                +----------------------------------------------+
                 
                +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦C.¦Issues Particular to Sheriff Warren's Summary Judgment Motion¦1168¦
                +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                 
                +----------------------------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦¦1.¦Absolute Legislative Immunity                         ¦1168¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦2.¦Qualified Immunity                                    ¦1170¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦3.¦Article III Standing                                  ¦1170¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦4.¦Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies                 ¦1173¦
                +++--+------------------------------------------------------+----¦
                ¦¦¦  ¦Equal Protection Claims and Statute of Limitations: RG¦    ¦
                ¦¦¦5.¦                                                      ¦1173¦
                ¦¦¦  ¦Apartments and Greater White Church                   ¦    ¦
                +----------------------------------------------------------------+
                 
                +---------------------+
                ¦¦¦¦a.¦Count III ¦1174¦
                ++++--+----------+----¦
                ¦¦¦¦b.¦Count IV  ¦1176¦
                +---------------------+
                 
                +--------------------------------------------------------------+
                ¦¦D.¦State Law Claims
...

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