Howard v. Wyman

Decision Date10 June 1971
Citation28 N.Y.2d 434,271 N.E.2d 528,322 N.Y.S.2d 683
Parties, 271 N.E.2d 528 In the Matter of Betty HOWARD, Respondent, v. George K. WYMAN, as Commissioner of the New York State Department of Social Services, Appellant, et al.
CourtNew York Court of Appeals Court of Appeals

Louis J. Lefkowitz, Atty. Gen., William J. Stutman, New York City, Samuel A. Hirshowitz, Albany and A. Seth Greenwald, New York City, of counsel, for appellant.

Gerald Schwartz and Mark Spires for respondent.

FULD, Chief Judge.

The petitioner, the mother of several children is a welfare recipient whose apartment was allegedly burglarized, resulting in the loss or destruction of clothing and furniture. She thereupon applied to the New York City Social Services Department for replacement of the stolen articles, relying on section 131--a (subd. 6) of the Social Services Law, Consol.Laws, c. 55, which, in part, provides that 'a social services official may make provisions for the * * * replacement of necessary furniture and clothing for persons in need of public assistance who have suffered the loss of such items as the result of fire, flood or other like catastrophe'. 1 The city agency denied the application and that determination was affirmed, following a hearing, by the Commissioner of the State Department of Social Services. It was his view that '(l)osses due to theft and vandalism are not losses due to catastrophe' such as are contemplated by the statute. In this article 78 proceeding, the courts below reached a different conclusion; the Appellate Division, 36 A.D.2d 713, 319 N.Y.S.2d 754,--Justice McGivern dissenting--held that a loss of clothing and furniture due to a burglary is a 'catastrophe' under the statute and remanded the case to the appellant State Commissioner for the purpose of having him determine 'the appropriate amount of the grant' to be allowed the petitioner to replace the articles stolen. 2 It appears that the petitioner and her children were housed, following the burglary, in a hotel but the propriety of such housing is not here involved, the only question presented and argued on this appeal being the reach of the phrase, 'or other like catastrophe', contained in section 131--a (subd. 6) of the Social Services Laws.

The statute provides for replacement of necessary furniture and clothing for persons who have suffered the loss of such items 'as the result of fire, flood or Other like catastrophe'. The loss of those articles to one who has no money with which to replace them might well be deemed a 'catastrophe'. However, our task is to decide not whether a burglary may, in some instances, be termed a 'catastrophe' as that word is generally understood but, rather, what the Legislature and the Social Services Department intended when they used the phrase 'fire, flood or other like catastrophe'. Having in mind the maxims, Ejusdem generis and Noscitur a sociis, it is difficult to conclude that it was the legislative design to include 'burglary' within the covering clause employed. Reasonably construed, the phrase, a 'like catastrophe' encompasses only a natural occurrence--and, in the case of a fire, one that is man-made--but a burglary is far too unlike a fire or a flood to be included.

This was, the Commissioner informs us, the precise construction intended by his department in drafting the regulation implementing the statute and it is the meaning consistently accorded the provision in cases before it involving burglaries. It is well settled that the construction given statutes and regulations by the agency responsible for their administration, if not irrational or unreasonable, should be upheld. (See, e.g., Matter of Mounting & Finishing Co. v. McGoldrick, 294 N.Y. 104, 108, 60 N.E.2d 825, 827; Matter of Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Co. v. Joseph, 308 N.Y. 333, 338, 125 n.E.2d 857, 859; Udall v. Tallman, 380 U.S. 1, 16--18, 85 S.Ct. 792, 13 L.Ed.2d 616; Power Reactor Co. v. International Union of Electricians, 367 U.S. 396, 408, 81 S.Ct. 1529, 6 L.Ed.2d 924.) As this court wrote in the Mounting & Finishing Co. case (294 N.Y., at p. 108, 60 N.E.2d at p. 827), 'statutory construction is the function of the courts 'but where the question is one of specific application of a broad statutory term in a proceeding in which the agency administering the statute must determine it initially, the reviewing viewing court's function is limited' (National Labor Relations Board v. Hearst Publications, 322 U.S. 111, 131, 64 S.Ct. 851, 860, 88 L.Ed. 1170). The administrative determination is to be accepted by the courts 'if it has 'warrant in the record' and a reasonable basis in law' (same citation). 'The judicial function is exhausted when there is found to be a rational basis for the conclusions approved by the administrative body' (Rochester Tel. Corp. v. United States, 307 U.S. 125, 146, 59...

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