In re Liberty Univ., Inc., No. 10–2347.

CourtUnited States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (4th Circuit)
Citation733 F.3d 72
Docket NumberNo. 10–2347.
PartiesLIBERTY UNIVERSITY, INCORPORATED, a Virginia Nonprofit Corporation; Michele G. Waddell; Joanne V. Merrill, Plaintiffs–Appellants, and Martha A. Neal; David Stein, M.D.; Pausanias Alexander; Mary T. Bendorf; Delegate Kathy Byron; Jeff Helgeson, Plaintiffs, v. Jacob LEW, Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, in his official capacity; Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, in her official capacity; Seth Harris, Acting Secretary of the United States Department of Labor, in his official capacity; Eric H. Holder, Jr., Attorney General of the United States, in his official capacity, Defendants–Appellees. Mountain States Legal Foundation; Revere America Foundation; American Civil Rights Union; Family Research Council; Breast Cancer Prevention Institute; Life Legal Defense Foundation; Landmark Legal Foundation; Project Liberty; David Boyle; Members of Legatus; Catholic Medical Association; Foundation for Moral Law; Virginia Family Foundation; West Virginia Family Policy Council; Maryland Family Alliance; North Carolina Family Policy Council; Palmetto Family Council; Americans United For Life; Alliance Defending Freedom, Amici Supporting Appellants, American Civil Liberties Union; American Civil Liberties Union of Virginia, Incorporated; American Nurses Association; American Academy of Pediatrics, Incorporated; American Medical Student Association; Center For For American Progress, d/b/a Doctors for America; National Hispanic Medical Association; National Physicians Alliance; Harry Reid, Senate Majority Leader; Nancy Pelosi, House Democratic Leader; Dick Durbin, Senator, Assistant Majority Leader; Charles Schumer, Senator, Conference Vice Chair; Patty Murray, Conference Secretary; Max Baucus, Senator, Committee on Finance Chair; Tom Harkin, Senator, Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Chair; Patrick Leahy, Senator, Committee on the Judiciary Chair; Barbara Mikulski, Senator, HELP Subcommittee on Retirement and Aging Chair; John D. Rockefeller, IV, Senator, Committee on Commerce Chair; Steny Hoyer, Representative, House Democratic Whip; James E. Clyburn, Representative, Democratic Assistant Leader; John B. Larson, Representative, Chair of Democratic Caucus; Xavier Becerra, Representative, Vice Chair of Democratic Caucus; John D. Dingell, Representative, Sponsor of House Health Care Reform Legislation; Henry A. Waxman, Representative, Ranking Member, Committee On Energy And Commerce; Frank Pallone, Jr., Representative, Ranking Member, Commerce Subcommittee On Health; Sander M. Levin, Representative, Ranking Member, Committee on Ways and Means; Fortney Pete Stark, Representative, Ranking Member, Ways And Means Subcommittee on Health; Robert E. Andrews, Representative, Ranking Member, Education and Workforce Subcommittee On Health; Jerrold Nadler, Representative, Ranking Member, Subcommittee On Constitution; George Miller, Representative, Ranking Member, Education And The Workforce Committee; John Conyers, Jr., Representative, Ranking Member, Committee On The Judiciary; Jack M. Balkin, Knight Professor of Constitutional Law and The First Amendment, Yale Law School; Gillian E. Metzger, Professor of Law, Columbia Law School; Trevor W. Morrison, Professor of Law, Columbia Law School; American Association of People With Disabilities; The Arc of the United States; Breast Cancer Action; Families USA; Friends of Cancer Research; March of Dimes Foundation; Mental Health America; National Breast Cancer Coalition; National Organization For Rare Disorders; National Partnership For Women And Families; National Senior Citizens Law Center; National Women's Health Network; The Ovarian Cancer National Alliance; American Hospital Association; Association of American Medical Colleges; Federation of American Hospitals; National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems; Catholic Health Association of The United States; National Association of Children's Hospitals; Christine O. Gregoire, Governor; Dr. David Cutler, Deputy, Otto Eckstein Professor of Applied Economics, Harvard University; Dr. Henry Aaron, Senior Fellow, Economic Studies Bruce and Virginia MacLaury Chair, The Brookings Institution; Dr. George Akerlof, Koshland Professor of Economics, University of California–Berkeley, 2001 Nobel Laureate; Dr. Stuart Altman, Sol C. Chaikin, Professor of National Health Policy, Brandeis University; Dr. Kenneth Arrow, Joan Kenney, Professor of Economics and Professor of Operations Research, Stanford University, 1972 Nobel Laureate; Dr. Susan Athey, Professor of Economics, Harvard University, 2007 Recipient of the John Bates Clark Medal for the most influential American economist under age 40; Dr. Linda J. Blumberg, Senior Fellow, The Urban Institute, Health Policy Center; Dr. Leonard E. Burman, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Professor of Public Affairs at the Maxwell School, Syracuse University; Dr. Amitabh Chandra, Professor of Public Policy Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; Dr. Michael Chernew, Professor, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School; Dr. Philip Cook, ITT/Sanford Professor of Public Policy, Professor of Economics, Duke University; Dr. Claudia Goldin, Henry Lee Professor of Economics, Harvard University; Dr. Tal Gross, Department of Health Policy and Management, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University; Dr. Jonathan Gruber, Professor of Economics, MIT; Dr. Jack Hadley, Associate Dean for Finance and Planning, Professor and Senior Health Services Researcher, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University; Dr. Vivian Ho, Baker Institute Chair in Health Economics and Professor of Economics, Rice University; Dr. John F. Holahan, Ph. D., Director, Health Policy Research Center, The Urban Institute; Dr. Jill Horwitz, Professor of Law and Co–Director of the Program in Law & Economics, University of Michigan School of Law; Dr. Lawrence Katz, Elisabeth Allen Professor of Economics, Harvard University; Dr. Frank Levy, Rose Professor of Urban Economics, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT; Dr. Peter Lindert, Distinguished Research Professor of Economics, University of California, Davis; Dr. Eric Maskin, Albert O. Hirschman, Professor of Social Science at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, 2007 Nobel Laureate; Dr. Alan C. Monheit, Professor of Health Economics, School of Public Health, University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey; Dr. Marilyn Moon, Vice President and Director Health Program, American Institutes for Research; Dr. Richard J. Murnane, Thompson Professor of Education and Society, Harvard University; Dr. Len M. Nichols, George Mason University; Dr. Harold Pollack, Helen Ross Professor of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago; Dr. Matthew Rabin, Edward G. and Nancy S. Jordan Professor of Economics, University of California–Berkeley, 2001 Recipient of the John Bates Clark Medal for the most influential American economist under age 40; Dr. James B. Rebitzer, Professor of Economics, Management, and Public Policy, Boston University School of Management; Dr. Michael Reich, Professor of Economics, University of California at Berkeley; Dr. Thomas Rice, Professor, UCLA School of Public Health; Dr. Meredith Rosenthal, Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard University, Harvard School of Public Health; Dr. Christopher Ruhm, Professor of Public Policy and Economics, Department of Economics, University of Virginia; DR. Jonathan Skinner, Professor of Economics, Dartmouth College, and Professor of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School; Dr. Katherine Swartz, Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health; Dr. Kenneth Warner, Dean of the School of Public Health and Avedis Donabedian Distinguished University Professor of Public Health, University of Michigan; Dr. Paul N. Van De Water, Senior Fellow, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities; Dr. Stephen Zuckerman, Senior Fellow, The Urban Institute; National Women's Law Center; American Association of University Women; American Federation Of State, County and Municipal Employees; American Medical Women's Association; Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum; Black Women's Health Imperative; Childbirth Connection; IBIS Reproductive Health; Institute of Science and Human Values; Maryland Women's Coalition for Health Care Reform; Mental Health America; National Asian Pacific American Women's Forum; National Association of Social Workers; National Coalition for LGBT Health; National Council of Jewish Women; National Council of Women's Organizations; National Education Association; National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health; Older Women's League; Physicians for Reproductive Choice And Health; Raising Women's Voices; Sargent Shriver National Center On Poverty Law; Southwest Women's Law Center; Wider Opportunities for Women; Women's Law Center Of Maryland, Incorporated; Women's Law Project; Physicians for Reproductive Health; American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; American Society For Emergency Contraception; Association of Reproductive Health Professionals; American Society for Reproductive Medicine; Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine; American Medical Women's Association; National Association of Nurse Practitioners In Women's Health; Society of Family Planning; James Trussell; Susan F. Wood; Don Downing; Kathleen Besinque; Americans United for Separation of Church and State; The Anti–Defamation League; The Interfaith Alliance Foundation; The National Coalition of American Nuns; The National Council of Jewish Women; The Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice; The Religious Institute; The Unitarian Universalist Association; The Unitarian Universalist Women's Federation, Amici Supporting Appellees.
Decision Date11 July 2013

733 F.3d 72

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY, INCORPORATED, a Virginia Nonprofit Corporation; Michele G. Waddell; Joanne V. Merrill, Plaintiffs–Appellants,
and
Martha A. Neal; David Stein, M.D.; Pausanias Alexander; Mary T. Bendorf; Delegate Kathy Byron; Jeff Helgeson, Plaintiffs,
v.
Jacob LEW, Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, in his official capacity; Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, in her official capacity; Seth Harris, Acting Secretary of the United States Department of Labor, in his official capacity; Eric H. Holder, Jr., Attorney General of the United States, in his official capacity, Defendants–Appellees.

Mountain States Legal Foundation; Revere America Foundation; American Civil Rights Union; Family Research Council; Breast Cancer Prevention Institute; Life Legal Defense Foundation; Landmark Legal Foundation; Project Liberty; David Boyle; Members of Legatus; Catholic Medical Association; Foundation for Moral Law; Virginia Family Foundation; West Virginia Family Policy Council; Maryland Family Alliance; North Carolina Family Policy Council; Palmetto Family Council; Americans United For Life; Alliance Defending Freedom, Amici Supporting Appellants,
American Civil Liberties Union; American Civil Liberties Union of Virginia, Incorporated; American Nurses Association; American Academy of Pediatrics, Incorporated; American Medical Student Association; Center For For American Progress, d/b/a Doctors for America; National Hispanic Medical Association; National Physicians Alliance; Harry Reid, Senate Majority Leader; Nancy Pelosi, House Democratic Leader; Dick Durbin, Senator, Assistant Majority Leader; Charles Schumer, Senator, Conference Vice Chair; Patty Murray, Conference Secretary; Max Baucus, Senator, Committee on Finance Chair; Tom Harkin, Senator, Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Chair; Patrick Leahy, Senator, Committee on the Judiciary Chair; Barbara Mikulski, Senator, HELP Subcommittee on Retirement and Aging Chair; John D. Rockefeller, IV, Senator, Committee on Commerce Chair; Steny Hoyer, Representative, House Democratic Whip; James E. Clyburn, Representative, Democratic Assistant Leader; John B. Larson, Representative, Chair of Democratic Caucus; Xavier Becerra, Representative, Vice Chair of Democratic Caucus; John D. Dingell, Representative, Sponsor of House Health Care Reform Legislation; Henry A. Waxman, Representative, Ranking Member, Committee On Energy And Commerce; Frank Pallone, Jr., Representative, Ranking Member, Commerce Subcommittee On Health; Sander M. Levin, Representative, Ranking Member, Committee on Ways and Means; Fortney Pete Stark, Representative, Ranking Member, Ways And Means Subcommittee on Health; Robert E. Andrews, Representative, Ranking Member, Education and Workforce Subcommittee On Health; Jerrold Nadler, Representative, Ranking Member, Subcommittee On Constitution; George Miller, Representative, Ranking Member, Education And The Workforce Committee; John Conyers, Jr., Representative, Ranking Member, Committee On The Judiciary; Jack M. Balkin, Knight Professor of Constitutional Law and The First Amendment, Yale Law School; Gillian E. Metzger, Professor of Law, Columbia Law School; Trevor W. Morrison, Professor of Law, Columbia Law School; American Association of People With Disabilities; The Arc of the United States; Breast Cancer Action; Families USA; Friends of Cancer Research; March of Dimes Foundation; Mental Health America; National Breast Cancer Coalition; National Organization For Rare Disorders; National Partnership For Women And Families; National Senior Citizens Law Center; National Women's Health Network; The Ovarian Cancer National Alliance; American Hospital Association; Association of American Medical Colleges; Federation of American Hospitals; National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems; Catholic Health Association of The United States; National Association of Children's Hospitals; Christine O. Gregoire, Governor; Dr. David Cutler, Deputy, Otto Eckstein Professor of Applied Economics, Harvard University; Dr. Henry Aaron, Senior Fellow, Economic Studies Bruce and Virginia MacLaury Chair, The Brookings Institution; Dr. George Akerlof, Koshland Professor of Economics, University of California–Berkeley, 2001 Nobel Laureate; Dr. Stuart Altman, Sol C. Chaikin, Professor of National Health Policy, Brandeis University; Dr. Kenneth Arrow, Joan Kenney, Professor of Economics and Professor of Operations Research, Stanford University, 1972 Nobel Laureate; Dr. Susan Athey, Professor of Economics, Harvard University, 2007 Recipient of the John Bates Clark Medal for the most influential American economist under age 40; Dr. Linda J. Blumberg, Senior Fellow, The Urban Institute, Health Policy Center; Dr. Leonard E. Burman, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Professor of Public Affairs at the Maxwell School, Syracuse University; Dr. Amitabh Chandra, Professor of Public Policy Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; Dr. Michael Chernew, Professor, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School; Dr. Philip Cook, ITT/Sanford Professor of Public Policy, Professor of Economics, Duke University; Dr. Claudia Goldin, Henry Lee Professor of Economics, Harvard University; Dr. Tal Gross, Department of Health Policy and Management, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University; Dr. Jonathan Gruber, Professor of Economics, MIT; Dr. Jack Hadley, Associate Dean for Finance and Planning, Professor and Senior Health Services Researcher, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University; Dr. Vivian Ho, Baker Institute Chair in Health Economics and Professor of Economics, Rice University; Dr. John F. Holahan, Ph. D., Director, Health Policy Research Center, The Urban Institute; Dr. Jill Horwitz, Professor of Law and Co–Director of the Program in Law & Economics, University of Michigan School of Law; Dr. Lawrence Katz, Elisabeth Allen Professor of Economics, Harvard University; Dr. Frank Levy, Rose Professor of Urban Economics, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT; Dr. Peter Lindert, Distinguished Research Professor of Economics, University of California, Davis; Dr. Eric Maskin, Albert O. Hirschman, Professor of Social Science at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, 2007 Nobel Laureate; Dr. Alan C. Monheit, Professor of Health Economics, School of Public Health, University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey; Dr. Marilyn Moon, Vice President and Director Health Program, American Institutes for Research; Dr. Richard J. Murnane, Thompson Professor of Education and Society, Harvard University; Dr. Len M. Nichols, George Mason University; Dr. Harold Pollack, Helen Ross Professor of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago; Dr. Matthew Rabin, Edward G. and Nancy S. Jordan Professor of Economics, University of California–Berkeley, 2001 Recipient of the John Bates Clark Medal for the most influential American economist under age 40; Dr. James B. Rebitzer, Professor of Economics, Management, and Public Policy, Boston University School of Management; Dr. Michael Reich, Professor of Economics, University of California at Berkeley; Dr. Thomas Rice, Professor, UCLA School of Public Health; Dr. Meredith Rosenthal, Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard University, Harvard School of Public Health; Dr. Christopher Ruhm, Professor of Public Policy and Economics, Department of Economics, University of Virginia; DR. Jonathan Skinner, Professor of Economics, Dartmouth College, and Professor of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School; Dr. Katherine Swartz, Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health; Dr. Kenneth Warner, Dean of the School of Public Health and Avedis Donabedian Distinguished University Professor of Public Health, University of Michigan; Dr. Paul N. Van De Water, Senior Fellow, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities; Dr. Stephen Zuckerman, Senior Fellow, The Urban Institute; National Women's Law Center; American Association of University Women; American Federation Of State, County and Municipal Employees; American Medical Women's Association; Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum; Black Women's Health Imperative; Childbirth Connection; IBIS Reproductive Health; Institute of Science and Human Values; Maryland Women's Coalition for Health Care Reform; Mental Health America; National Asian Pacific American Women's Forum; National Association of Social Workers; National Coalition for LGBT Health; National Council of Jewish Women; National Council of Women's Organizations; National Education Association; National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health; Older Women's League; Physicians for Reproductive Choice And Health; Raising Women's Voices; Sargent Shriver National Center On Poverty Law; Southwest Women's Law Center; Wider Opportunities for Women; Women's Law Center Of Maryland, Incorporated; Women's Law Project; Physicians for Reproductive Health; American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; American Society For Emergency Contraception; Association of Reproductive Health Professionals; American Society for Reproductive Medicine; Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine; American Medical Women's Association; National Association of Nurse Practitioners In Women's Health; Society of Family Planning; James Trussell; Susan F. Wood; Don Downing; Kathleen Besinque; Americans United for Separation of Church and State; The Anti–Defamation League; The Interfaith Alliance Foundation; The National Coalition of American Nuns; The National Council of Jewish Women; The Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice; The Religious Institute; The Unitarian Universalist Association; The Unitarian Universalist Women's Federation, Amici Supporting Appellees.

No. 10–2347.

United States Court of Appeals,
Fourth Circuit.

Argued: May 16, 2013.
Decided: July 11, 2013.


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51 practice notes
  • N. Arapaho Tribe v. Burwell, Case No. 14–CV–247–SWS.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of Wyoming
    • February 26, 2015
    ...“assessable payment” and “tax” to be interchangeable terms that denote a tax subject to the AIA)8 with Liberty Univ., Inc. v. Lew, 733 F.3d 72, 88 (4th Cir.2013) (“Because Congress initially and primarily refers to the exaction as an ‘assessable payment’ and not a ‘tax,’ the statutory text ......
  • Most Reverend David A. Zubik v. Sebelius, Nos. 13cv1459
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 3th Circuit. United States District Courts. 3th Circuit. Western District of Pennsylvania
    • November 21, 2013
    ...religious employer exemption to be exempt. 78 Fed.Reg. 39,886; see also 78 Fed.Reg. at 8456, 8463. 18. In Liberty University, Inc. v. Lew, 733 F.3d 72 (4th Cir.2013), the Court of Appeals upheld the constitutionality of two provisions of the ACA—the “individual mandate,” which requires indi......
  • Hotze v. Burwell, No. 14–20039.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (5th Circuit)
    • April 24, 2015
    ...coverage”—and that they did not qualify for any exemption from the mandate. See Sissel, 760 F.3d at 4–5 ; Liberty Univ., Inc. v. Lew, 733 F.3d 72, 90 (4th Cir.2013) ; Thomas More Law Ctr., 651 F.3d at 535–39. In the two cases in which other circuits did not find standing, the plaintiffs fai......
  • Action NC v. Strach, 1:15-cv-1063
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. Middle District of North Carolina
    • October 27, 2016
    ...it is likely, as opposed to merely speculative, that the injury will be redressed by a favorable decision.’ " Liberty Univ., Inc. v. Lew , 733 F.3d 72, 89 (4th Cir. 2013) (quoting Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Envtl. Servs. (TOC), Inc. , 528 U.S. 167, 180–81, 120 S.Ct. 693, 145 L.Ed......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
50 cases
  • N. Arapaho Tribe v. Burwell, Case No. 14–CV–247–SWS.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of Wyoming
    • February 26, 2015
    ...“assessable payment” and “tax” to be interchangeable terms that denote a tax subject to the AIA)8 with Liberty Univ., Inc. v. Lew, 733 F.3d 72, 88 (4th Cir.2013) (“Because Congress initially and primarily refers to the exaction as an ‘assessable payment’ and not a ‘tax,’ the statutory text ......
  • Most Reverend David A. Zubik v. Sebelius, Nos. 13cv1459
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 3th Circuit. United States District Courts. 3th Circuit. Western District of Pennsylvania
    • November 21, 2013
    ...religious employer exemption to be exempt. 78 Fed.Reg. 39,886; see also 78 Fed.Reg. at 8456, 8463. 18. In Liberty University, Inc. v. Lew, 733 F.3d 72 (4th Cir.2013), the Court of Appeals upheld the constitutionality of two provisions of the ACA—the “individual mandate,” which requires indi......
  • Hotze v. Burwell, No. 14–20039.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (5th Circuit)
    • April 24, 2015
    ...coverage”—and that they did not qualify for any exemption from the mandate. See Sissel, 760 F.3d at 4–5 ; Liberty Univ., Inc. v. Lew, 733 F.3d 72, 90 (4th Cir.2013) ; Thomas More Law Ctr., 651 F.3d at 535–39. In the two cases in which other circuits did not find standing, the plaintiffs fai......
  • Action NC v. Strach, 1:15-cv-1063
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. Middle District of North Carolina
    • October 27, 2016
    ...it is likely, as opposed to merely speculative, that the injury will be redressed by a favorable decision.’ " Liberty Univ., Inc. v. Lew , 733 F.3d 72, 89 (4th Cir. 2013) (quoting Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Envtl. Servs. (TOC), Inc. , 528 U.S. 167, 180–81, 120 S.Ct. 693, 145 L.Ed......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
1 firm's commentaries
  • Bankruptcy And IRC Section 4980H
    • United States
    • Mondaq United States
    • April 1, 2022
    ...'507(a)(8)(E), with differing results. The Court here focused on the Fourth Circuit's opinion in Liberty Univ., Inc. v. Lew ("Liberty"), 733 F.3d 72 (4th Cir. 2013). The Court in Liberty relied on the Supreme Court's analysis in NFIB to determine that ESRP is a tax under the "Taxing and Spe......

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