Industrial Workers of World v. Clark, No. 20586.

CourtUnited States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (District of Columbia)
Writing for the CourtDANAHER, LEVENTHAL and ROBINSON, Circuit
Citation385 F.2d 687,128 US App. DC 165
Docket NumberNo. 20586.
Decision Date26 September 1967
PartiesINDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF the WORLD, etc., et al., Appellants, v. Ramsey CLARK, Attorney General of the United States, Appellee.

128 US App. DC 165, 385 F.2d 687 (1967)

INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF the WORLD, etc., et al., Appellants,
v.
Ramsey CLARK, Attorney General of the United States, Appellee.

No. 20586.

United States Court of Appeals District of Columbia Circuit.

Argued April 21, 1967.

Decided September 26, 1967.


385 F.2d 688

Mr. Marshall Patner, Chicago, Ill., for appellants. Mr. William W. Brackett, Chicago, Ill., also entered an appearance for appellants.

Mr. Kevin T. Maroney, Atty., Dept. of Justice, with whom Asst. Atty. Gen. J. W. Yeagley, Mr. George B. Searls and Mrs. Lee B. Anderson, Attys., Dept. of Justice, were on the brief, for appellee.

Before DANAHER, LEVENTHAL and ROBINSON, Circuit Judges.

LEVENTHAL, Circuit Judge:

This case presents problems arising out of the establishment and maintenance of the so-called "Attorney General's List." Relying on various federal statutes, President Truman in 1947 issued Executive Order No. 9835, 12 Fed.Reg. 1935, establishing an Employees Loyalty Program in the Executive Branch of the Government. By this order the Attorney General was directed to furnish the Loyalty Review Board with the names of each foreign or domestic organization or association which he, after "appropriate investigation" designated as fascist, communist, totalitarian, or otherwise subversive. Thereupon the Board was instructed to disseminate this information to all federal departments and agencies. In 1949 the Attorney General cited the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), appellant herein, as such an organization seeking to alter the form of government of the United States by unconstitutional means. See 14 Fed.Reg. 2371 (1949).

On April 27, 1953 President Eisenhower revoked Executive Order No. 9835, replacing it with Executive Order No. 10450, 18 Fed.Reg. 2489. This new order somewhat refined notions of loyalty to make "security" the ultimate aim of the program. The new order continued the directive that the Attorney General compile and maintain a list of subversive organizations, but provided that he was to communicate this information directly to heads of departments and agencies. Pursuant to this directive, the Attorney General on April 29, 1953, 18 Fed.Reg. 2741, redesignated the organizations previously listed under the prior Executive Order, including the IWW. The Attorney General accompanied the redesignation with regulations setting forth procedures for prompt challenge to a proposed listing. Under the new regulation any organization whose listing was carried over from the previous determination was given ten days from the effective date of Executive Order No. 10450 (May 27, 1953) to file a written notice that it contested such listing. See 28 C.F.R. § 41.1(a) (1967). Failure to file such a notice of contest was declared to be "an acquiescence in such designation."1

The IWW made no such objection within that ten day period. Although the IWW kept up correspondence with the Attorney General intermittently over the years protesting its inclusion in the Attorney General's List, no court challenge to the organization's listing was made until the present action was instituted

385 F.2d 689
in 1965. The Attorney General then raised the defense of laches, contending that the exchange of letters over twelve years did not keep alive any objection to the 1953 listing. The District Court dismissed the action on the ground that the administrative remedies available with respect to the 1953 listing had not been exhausted

We do not consider the merits of the IWW's claims that the procedures for listing allegedly subversive groups fatally offend the First and Fifth Amendments. Compare Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Comm. v. McGrath, 341 U.S. 123, 71 S.Ct. 624, 95 L.Ed. 817 (1951), with National Lawyers Guild v. Brownell, 96 U.S.App.D.C. 252, 225 F.2d 552 (1955), cert. denied 351 U.S. 927, 76 S.Ct. 778, 100 L.Ed. 1457 (1956), and Association of Lithuanian Workers v. Brownell, 101 U.S.App.D.C. 73, 247 F.2d 64, vacated as moot, 355 U.S. 23, 78 S.Ct. 93, 2 L.Ed. 2d 67 (1957). We conclude that the failure to object within the allotted period to the 1953 listing precludes any judicial determination at this time that that listing was unlawful.

A 10-day period would be too "cabined and confined" to suffice as the exclusive opportunity for asserting a constitutional right available to a body of citizens whose circumstances do not encourage initiative and enterprise. Lane v. Wilson, 307 U.S. 268, 276, 59 S.Ct. 872, 83 L.Ed. 1281 (1939). But it was reasonable for the Attorney General to assume that different considerations were properly applicable to persons already "organized" for expression of political views, if not more comprehensive purposes, and presumptively acquainted with rights and remedies.2 In this context we note that since the IWW was a re-listed organization, it in fact had a period of 38 days to file its objection,3 and further note that although the IWW has objected to the procedures on the ground that they do not require actual notice of listing, there is no contention that the IWW was not in fact aware of the Attorney General's determination to continue listing it as a subversive organization in time to raise a contest.

That, however, is not the end of this case. Although the regulations issued on the heels of Executive Order 10450 provide in considerable detail for the mechanics of notice and hearing when a listed organization raises a timely challenge to the listing, within ten days of its effective date, see 28 C.F.R. §§ 41.1-.11 (1967), there is not a public suggestion, how, if ever, a listed organization may subsequently exonerate itself, if perchance it did not object within the ten day period. The stipulation of undisputed facts entered into between the parties recites:

8. Because neither the Executive Order nor the Rules issued thereunder provide a procedure for an organization\'s removal from the list of those designated, the defendant Attorney General has informally added to the above Rules the concept of administrative review upon a showing of a material change in the character of the organization or newly discovered material evidence. (JA 23)

The Attorney General assures us that "although the regulations do not provide a procedure for removing an organization from the list, defendant would, of course, afford further administrative proceedings to a designated organization upon a showing of a material change in the character of the organization or any substantial new and material evidence." (Brief for Appellee at 2.) The Attorney General correctly characterizes this technique of administrative review and reconsideration

385 F.2d 690
as "informal," since its origin and establishment appear only in correspondence with listed organizations. The decision as to what constitutes a "material change in the character of the organization" or "substantial and new material evidence" is apparently made ex parte by the Attorney General, and he has articulated no standards to guide his judgment on such questions

We note that because of its failure to raise an objection to the 1953 listing within the period specified in the 1953 regulation, the IWW has never been advised what the substantive basis was for the determination to list it as a subversive organization. In such a context, a bare requirement that a listed organization demonstrate to the Attorney General's satisfaction that there is "new" material evidence or a material "change in the character" of the organization emerges as something less than a wholly satisfactory administrative remedy.

We need not pass at this point on whether the informal review the Attorney General assures us he makes available in this context is adequate.4 The IWW does not raise that precise challenge. This is an area where First Amendment guarantees of freedom of speech, press, and political association are involved, however, and we consider this issue open in the further proceedings which we are ordering.

In any event, in this case we find that the IWW has resorted to what has thus far appeared as an administrative remedy, and despite the silence of the District Court on this aspect of the case, the IWW has, we think, timely raised a justiciable objection that the Attorney General's denial of relief was arbitrary.

We have referred to an irregular course of correspondence between the IWW and the Attorney General, dating at least from January 1954, in which the IWW continued to object to its listing and the Attorney General consistently relied on the IWW's default in failing to protest within ten days of the listing in 1953. Of particular significance is the exchange of letters that began on December 23, 1964, when counsel for the IWW wrote to the Attorney General seeking information about the steps necessary to secure removal of the organization from the subversive list. On January 6, 1965, the Assistant Attorney General, Internal Security Division, responded that it seemed "extremely improbable that an organization could be properly delisted upon a review by the Acting Attorney General if his review were limited to a mere reconsideration of the information considered by Attorneys General Tom C. Clark, McGrath and Brownell at the time of their respective decisions to designate the organization." The letter proceeded to advise the IWW once more though that "a petition of the organization requesting delisting will be given careful study and consideration if it presents new information providing a reasonable basis for considering such delisting." (JA 29-30)5

Then on February 13, 1965, the IWW submitted a letter styled "Petition" formally requesting delisting, or in the alternative seeking at least a hearing in support...

To continue reading

Request your trial
9 practice notes
  • National Wildlife Federation v. Burford, No. 86-5239
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (District of Columbia)
    • 15 Diciembre 1987
    ...of Page 331 discretion. Hayes v. Secretary of Defense, 515 F.2d 668, 674-75 (D.C.Cir.1975); Industrial Workers of the World v. Clark, 385 F.2d 687, 692 (D.C.Cir.1967), cert. denied, 390 U.S. 948, 88 S.Ct. 1036, 19 L.Ed.2d 1138 (1968); Southeast Alaska Conservation Council v. Watson, 697 F.2......
  • JH Rutter Rex Mfg. Co., Inc. v. United States, Civ. A. No. 80-2865.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 5th Circuit. United States District Court (Eastern District of Louisiana)
    • 19 Febrero 1982
    ...have no res judicata effect and may be reconsidered in light of newly announced legal doctrine. Industrial Workers of the World v. Clark, 385 F.2d 687 (D.C.Cir.1967), cert. denied, 390 U.S. 948, 88 S.Ct. 1036, 19 L.Ed.2d 1138 (1968). See also United States v. Horton, 622 F.2d 144, 148 (5th ......
  • Greater Boston Television Corporation v. FCC, No. 17785
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (District of Columbia)
    • 29 Diciembre 1971
    ...Messenger v. Anderson, 225 U.S. 436, 32 S.Ct. 739, 56 L.Ed. 1152 (1912); Industrial Workers of World v. Clark, 128 U.S.App.D.C. 165, 171, 385 F.2d 687, 693 (1967); Naples v. United States, 123 U.S.App.D.C. 292, 359 F.2d 276 21 United States v. Throckmorton, 98 U.S. 61, 65, 25 L.Ed. 93 (1878......
  • Knox Hill Tenant Council v. Washington, No. 22781.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (District of Columbia)
    • 4 Febrero 1971
    ...Inc. v. Shaffer, 137 U.S.App.D.C. 371, 385-386, 424 F.2d 859, 873-874 (1970); see also IWW v. Clark, 128 U.S.App.D.C. 165, 171 n. 10, 385 F.2d 687, 693 n. 10 (1967), cert. denied, 390 U.S. 948, 88 S.Ct. 1036, 19 L.Ed.2d 1138 However, that conclusion, rather than disposing of this appeal, on......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
9 cases
  • National Wildlife Federation v. Burford, No. 86-5239
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (District of Columbia)
    • 15 Diciembre 1987
    ...of Page 331 discretion. Hayes v. Secretary of Defense, 515 F.2d 668, 674-75 (D.C.Cir.1975); Industrial Workers of the World v. Clark, 385 F.2d 687, 692 (D.C.Cir.1967), cert. denied, 390 U.S. 948, 88 S.Ct. 1036, 19 L.Ed.2d 1138 (1968); Southeast Alaska Conservation Council v. Watson, 697 F.2......
  • JH Rutter Rex Mfg. Co., Inc. v. United States, Civ. A. No. 80-2865.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 5th Circuit. United States District Court (Eastern District of Louisiana)
    • 19 Febrero 1982
    ...have no res judicata effect and may be reconsidered in light of newly announced legal doctrine. Industrial Workers of the World v. Clark, 385 F.2d 687 (D.C.Cir.1967), cert. denied, 390 U.S. 948, 88 S.Ct. 1036, 19 L.Ed.2d 1138 (1968). See also United States v. Horton, 622 F.2d 144, 148 (5th ......
  • Greater Boston Television Corporation v. FCC, No. 17785
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (District of Columbia)
    • 29 Diciembre 1971
    ...Messenger v. Anderson, 225 U.S. 436, 32 S.Ct. 739, 56 L.Ed. 1152 (1912); Industrial Workers of World v. Clark, 128 U.S.App.D.C. 165, 171, 385 F.2d 687, 693 (1967); Naples v. United States, 123 U.S.App.D.C. 292, 359 F.2d 276 21 United States v. Throckmorton, 98 U.S. 61, 65, 25 L.Ed. 93 (1878......
  • Knox Hill Tenant Council v. Washington, No. 22781.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (District of Columbia)
    • 4 Febrero 1971
    ...Inc. v. Shaffer, 137 U.S.App.D.C. 371, 385-386, 424 F.2d 859, 873-874 (1970); see also IWW v. Clark, 128 U.S.App.D.C. 165, 171 n. 10, 385 F.2d 687, 693 n. 10 (1967), cert. denied, 390 U.S. 948, 88 S.Ct. 1036, 19 L.Ed.2d 1138 However, that conclusion, rather than disposing of this appeal, on......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT