Int'l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump, No. 17-1351

CourtU.S. Court of Appeals — Fourth Circuit
Writing for the CourtGREGORY, Chief Judge
Parties INTERNATIONAL REFUGEE ASSISTANCE PROJECT, a project of the Urban Justice Center, Inc., on behalf of itself and its clients; HIAS, Inc., on behalf of itself and its clients; Middle East Studies Association of North America, Inc., on behalf of itself and its members; Muhammed Meteab; Paul Harrison; Ibrahim Ahmed Mohomed; John Does #1 & 3; Jane Doe #2, Plaintiffs–Appellees, v. Donald J. TRUMP, in his official capacity as President of the United States; Department of Homeland Security; Department of State; Office of the Director of National Intelligence; John F. Kelly, in his official capacity as Secretary of Homeland Security; Rex W. Tillerson, in his official capacity as Secretary of State; Daniel R. Coats, in his official capacity as Director of National Intelligence, Defendants–Appellants. State of Texas; State of Alabama; State of Arizona; State of Arkansas; State of Florida; State of Kansas; State of Louisiana; State of Montana; State of Oklahoma; State of South Carolina; State of South Dakota; State of West Virginia; Phil Bryant, Governor of the State of Mississippi; American Center for Law and Justice; Southern Legal Foundation, Inc.; American Civil Rights Union; Immigration Reform Law Institute ; U.S. Justice Foundation; Citizens United; Citizens United Foundation; English First Foundation ; English First ; Public Advocate of the United States ; Gun Owners Foundation; Gun Owners of America; Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund; U.S. Border Control Foundation; Policy Analysis Center ; Victor Williams, Amici Supporting Appellants, Interfaith Coalition; Colleges and Universities ; T.A.; Commonwealth of Virginia; State of Maryland; State of California; State of Connecticut; State of Delaware; State of Illinois; State of Iowa; State of Maine; State of Massachusetts; State of New Mexico; State of New York; State of North Carolina; State of Oregon; State of Rhode Island; State of Vermont; State of Washington; District of Columbia; City of Chicago; City of Los Angeles; City of New York; City of Philadelphia; City Council of New York; Mayor of the City of New York; City of Austin; City of Boston; Martin J. Walsh, Mayor of Boston; Town of Carrboro; James A. Diossa, Mayor of Central Falls, Rhode Island; Cook County, Illinois; City of Gary; City of Iowa City; Svante L. Myrick, Mayor of Ithaca; City of Jersey City; City of Madison; City of Minneapolis; Montgomery County; City of New Haven; Toni N. Harp, Mayor of New Haven; City of Oakland; City of Portland; City of Providence; Jorge O. Elorza, Mayor of Providence; City of St. Louis; City of Saint Paul; City of San Francisco; County of San Francisco ; City of San Jose; Santa Clara County; City of Santa Monica; City of Seattle; Village of Skokie; City of South Bend; City of Tucson; City of West Hollywood; Former National Security Officials; Members of the Clergy ; Riverside Church in the City of New York ; Americans United for Separation of Church & State; Bend the Arc; A Jewish Partnership for Justice; Southern Poverty Law Center; American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee; New York University; Roderick & Solange MacArthur Justice Center; Howard University School of Law Civil Rights Clinic; University Professors & Higher Education Associations; International Law Scholars; Nongovernmental Organizations; Ismail Elshikh; ANT-Defamation League; Jewish Council for Puclic Affairs; Union for Reform Judaism; Central Conference of American Rabbis; Women of Reform Judaism; American Bar Association; Muslim Justice League; Muslim Public Affairs Council; Islamic Circle of North America; Council on American-Islamic Relations; Asian Americans Advancing Justice-Asian Law Caucus ; National Immigrant Justice Center ; Asista; Americans for Immigrant Justice ; Futures Without Violence; North Carolina Coalition Against Domestic Violence; Sanctuary for Families; Members of Congress; Service Employees International Union; American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees, American Federation of Teachers; History Professors & Scholars; Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law; Center for Reproductive Rights; Southern Coalition for Social Justice; National Center for Lesbian Rights; Judge David L. Bazelton Center for Mental Health Law; Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law ; Mississippi Center for Justice; Washington Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights and Urban Affairs ; Technology Companies; Fred T. Korematsu Center for Law & Equality; Jay Hirabayashi; Holly Yasui; Karen Korematsu; Civil Rights Organizations ; National Bar Associations of Color; Foundation for the Children of Iran; Iranian Alliances Across Borders; Massachusetts Technology Leadership Council ; Episcopal Bishops ; Immigration Law Scholars & Clinicians on Statutory Claims; Former Federal Immigration & Homeland Security Officials; Constitutional Law Scholars; Medical Institutions; Advocacy Organizations; Individual Physicians; Tahirih Justice Center ; Asian Pacific Institute on Gender-Based Violence; Casa de Esperanza; National Domestic Violence Hotline ; Interfaith Group of Religious & Interreligious Organizations; Oxfam America, Inc.; Constitutional Law Professors; American Jewish Committee; Muslim Rights, Professional & Public Health Organizations; Cato Institute; National Assian Pacific American Bar Association; Association of Art Museum Directors; American Alliance of Museums; College Art Association; 94 Art Museums; American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children ; Advocates for Human Rights; Asian Law Alliance; Asian Pacific American Network of Oregon ; CASA; Community Refugee & Immigration Services; Integrated Refugee & Immigrant Services ; Immigrant Law Center of Minnesota ; Southeast Asia Resource Action Center ; Immigrant Rights Clinic of Washington; Square Legal Services, Inc. ; Airport Attorneys Coalition, Amici Supporting Appellees.
Docket NumberNo. 17-1351
Decision Date25 May 2017

857 F.3d 554

INTERNATIONAL REFUGEE ASSISTANCE PROJECT, a project of the Urban Justice Center, Inc., on behalf of itself and its clients; HIAS, Inc., on behalf of itself and its clients; Middle East Studies Association of North America, Inc., on behalf of itself and its members; Muhammed Meteab; Paul Harrison; Ibrahim Ahmed Mohomed; John Does #1 & 3; Jane Doe #2, Plaintiffs–Appellees,
v.
Donald J. TRUMP, in his official capacity as President of the United States; Department of Homeland Security; Department of State; Office of the Director of National Intelligence; John F. Kelly, in his official capacity as Secretary of Homeland Security; Rex W. Tillerson, in his official capacity as Secretary of State; Daniel R. Coats, in his official capacity as Director of National Intelligence, Defendants–Appellants.


State of Texas; State of Alabama; State of Arizona; State of Arkansas; State of Florida; State of Kansas; State of Louisiana; State of Montana; State of Oklahoma; State of South Carolina; State of South Dakota; State of West Virginia; Phil Bryant, Governor of the State of Mississippi; American Center for Law and Justice; Southern Legal Foundation, Inc.; American Civil Rights Union; Immigration Reform Law Institute ; U.S. Justice Foundation; Citizens United; Citizens United Foundation; English First Foundation ; English First ; Public Advocate of the United States ; Gun Owners Foundation; Gun Owners of America; Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund; U.S. Border Control Foundation; Policy Analysis Center ; Victor Williams, Amici Supporting Appellants,

Interfaith Coalition; Colleges and Universities ; T.A.; Commonwealth of Virginia; State of Maryland; State of California; State of Connecticut; State of Delaware; State of Illinois; State of Iowa; State of Maine; State of Massachusetts; State of New Mexico; State of New York; State of North Carolina; State of Oregon; State of Rhode Island; State of Vermont; State of Washington; District of Columbia; City of Chicago; City of Los Angeles; City of New York; City of Philadelphia; City Council of New York; Mayor of the City of New York; City of Austin; City of Boston; Martin J. Walsh, Mayor of Boston; Town of Carrboro; James A. Diossa, Mayor of Central Falls, Rhode Island; Cook County, Illinois; City of Gary; City of Iowa City; Svante L. Myrick, Mayor of Ithaca; City of Jersey City; City of Madison; City of Minneapolis; Montgomery County; City of New Haven; Toni N. Harp, Mayor of New Haven; City of Oakland; City of Portland; City of Providence; Jorge O. Elorza, Mayor of Providence; City of St. Louis; City of Saint Paul; City of San Francisco; County of San Francisco ; City of San Jose; Santa Clara County; City of Santa Monica; City of Seattle; Village of Skokie; City of South Bend; City of Tucson; City of West Hollywood;

Former National Security Officials; Members of the Clergy ; Riverside Church in the City of New York ; Americans United for Separation of Church & State; Bend the Arc; A Jewish Partnership for Justice; Southern Poverty Law Center; American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee; New York University; Roderick & Solange MacArthur Justice Center; Howard University School of Law Civil Rights Clinic; University Professors & Higher Education Associations; International Law Scholars; Nongovernmental Organizations; Ismail Elshikh; ANT-Defamation League; Jewish Council for Puclic Affairs; Union for Reform Judaism; Central Conference of American Rabbis; Women of Reform Judaism; American Bar Association; Muslim Justice League; Muslim Public Affairs Council; Islamic Circle of North America; Council on American-Islamic Relations; Asian Americans Advancing Justice-Asian Law Caucus ; National Immigrant Justice Center ; Asista; Americans for Immigrant Justice ; Futures Without Violence; North Carolina Coalition Against Domestic Violence; Sanctuary for Families; Members of Congress; Service Employees International Union; American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees, American Federation of Teachers; History Professors & Scholars; Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law; Center for Reproductive Rights; Southern Coalition for Social Justice; National Center for Lesbian Rights; Judge David L. Bazelton Center for Mental Health Law; Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law ; Mississippi Center for Justice; Washington Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights and Urban Affairs ; Technology Companies; Fred T. Korematsu Center for Law & Equality; Jay Hirabayashi; Holly Yasui; Karen Korematsu; Civil Rights Organizations ; National Bar Associations of Color; Foundation for the Children of Iran; Iranian Alliances Across Borders; Massachusetts Technology Leadership Council ; Episcopal Bishops ; Immigration Law Scholars & Clinicians on Statutory Claims; Former Federal Immigration & Homeland Security Officials; Constitutional Law Scholars; Medical Institutions; Advocacy Organizations; Individual Physicians; Tahirih Justice Center ; Asian Pacific Institute on Gender-Based Violence; Casa de Esperanza; National Domestic Violence Hotline ; Interfaith Group of Religious & Interreligious Organizations; Oxfam America, Inc.; Constitutional Law Professors; American Jewish Committee; Muslim Rights, Professional & Public Health Organizations; Cato Institute; National Assian Pacific American Bar Association; Association of Art Museum Directors; American Alliance of Museums; College Art Association; 94 Art Museums; American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children ; Advocates for Human Rights; Asian Law Alliance; Asian Pacific American Network of Oregon ; CASA; Community Refugee & Immigration Services; Integrated Refugee & Immigrant Services ; Immigrant Law Center of Minnesota ; Southeast Asia Resource Action Center ; Immigrant Rights Clinic of Washington; Square Legal Services, Inc. ; Airport Attorneys Coalition, Amici Supporting Appellees.

No. 17-1351

United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit.

Argued: May 8, 2017
Decided: May 25, 2017
Amended: May 31, 2017
Amended June 15, 2017


ARGUED: Jeffrey Bryan Wall, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, Washington, D.C., for Appellants. Omar C. Jadwat, AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION, New York, New York, for Appellees.

ON BRIEF: Edwin S. Kneedler, Deputy Solicitor General, Chad A. Readler, Acting Assistant Attorney General, August E. Flentje, Special Counsel to the Assistant Attorney General, Douglas N. Letter, Sharon Swingle, H. Thomas Byron III, Lowell V. Sturgill, Jr., Civil Division, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, Washington, D.C.; Rod J. Rosenstein, United States Attorney, OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES ATTORNEY, Baltimore, Maryland, for Appellants. Justin B. Cox, Atlanta, Georgia, Karen C. Tumlin, Nicholas Espíritu, Melissa S. Keaney, Esther Sung, Marielena Hincapié, NATIONAL IMMIGRATION LAW CENTER, Los Angeles, California; Lee Gelernt, Hina Shamsi, Hugh Handeyside, Sarah L. Mehta, Spencer E. Amdur, New York, New York, Cecillia D. Wang, Cody H. Wofsy, San Francisco, California, David Cole, Daniel Mach, Heather L. Weaver, AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION FOUNDATION, Washington, D.C.; David Rocah, Deborah A. Jeon, Sonia Kumar, Nicholas Taichi Steiner, AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION FOUNDATION OF MARYLAND, Baltimore, Maryland, for Appellees. Ken Paxton, Attorney General, Jeffrey C. Mateer, First Assistant Attorney General, Scott A. Keller, Solicitor General, J. Campbell Barker, Deputy Solicitor General, Ari Cuenin, Assistant Solicitor General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF TEXAS, Austin, Texas; Steven T. Marshall, Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ALABAMA, Montgomery, Alabama; Mark Brnovich, Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ARIZONA, Phoenix, Arizona; Leslie Rutledge, Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF ARKANSAS, Little Rock, Arkansas; Pamela Jo Bondi, Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF FLORIDA, Tallahassee, Florida; Derek Schmidt, Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF KANSAS, Topeka, Kansas; Jeff Landry, Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF LOUISIANA, Baton Rouge, Louisiana; Tim Fox, Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF MONTANA, Helena, Montana;

Mike Hunter, Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF OKLAHOMA, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Alan Wilson, Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF SOUTH CAROLINA, Columbia, South Carolina; Marty J. Jackley, Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY

857 F.3d 566

GENERAL OF SOUTH DAKOTA, Pierre, South Dakota; Patrick Morrisey, Attorney General, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WEST VIRGINIA, Charleston, West Virginia; Phil Bryant, Governor, OFFICE OF GOVERNOR PHIL BRYANT, Jackson, Mississippi, for Amici States of Texas, Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, West Virginia, and Governor Phil Bryant of the State of Mississippi. Robert D. Fram, Alexandra P. Grayner, Kathryn Bi, San Francisco, California, Kevin B. Collins, William E. Zapf, Ligia M. Markman, Karun Tilak, Michael Baker, Andrew Guy, COVINGTON & BURLING LLP, Washington, D.C., for Amicus Interfaith Coalition. Thomas J. Perrelli, Lindsay C. Harrison, Erica L. Ross, Tassity S. Johnson, JENNER & BLOCK LLP, Washington, D.C., for Amicus Colleges and Universities.

Jay Alan Sekulow, Stuart J. Roth, Colby M. May, Andrew J. Ekonomou, Jordon Sekulow, Craig L. Parshall, Matthew R. Clark, Benjamin P. Sisney, Washington, D.C., Edward L. White III, Erik M. Zimmerman, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Francis J. Manion, Geoffrey R. Surtees, AMERICAN CENTER FOR LAW AND JUSTICE, New Hope, Kentucky, for Amicus...

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81 practice notes
  • City of Chi. v. Barr, No. 18-2885
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (7th Circuit)
    • April 29, 2020
    ...where a nationwide injunction may, in very limited circumstances, be appropriate. See, e.g., Int'l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump, 857 F.3d 554, 605 (4th Cir. 2017) (upholding a nationwide injunction on the President's "travel ban" because plaintiffs were "dispersed throughout the Unit......
  • City & Cnty. of S.F. v. Sessions, Case No. 17-cv-04642-WHO
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. Northern District of California
    • October 5, 2018
    ...not cure the constitutional deficiency, which would endure in all [its] applications." See Int'l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump , 857 F.3d 554, 605 (4th Cir. 2017).California and San Francisco have shown that Section 1373 is unconstitutional and that the challenged conditions violate t......
  • City of S.F. v. Sessions, Case No. 18-cv-05146-WHO
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. Northern District of California
    • March 4, 2019
    ...which supports nationwide relief. City & Cty. of San Francisco , 897 F.3d at 1232 ; see also Int'l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump , 857 F.3d 554, 605 (4th Cir. 2017) (finding that relief limited to the parties in suit where there was a likely constitutional violation "would not cure th......
  • Am. Humanist Ass'n v. Maryland-National Capital Park, No. 15-2597.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (4th Circuit)
    • October 18, 2017
    ...intangible injury. See Suhre v. Haywood Cty. , 131 F.3d 1083, 1086 (4th Cir. 1997) ; see also Int'l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump , 857 F.3d 554, 582 (4th Cir.), cert. granted , ––– U.S. ––––, 137 S.Ct. 2080, 198 L.Ed.2d 643 (2017). Specifically, in religious display cases, "unwelcome......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
80 cases
  • City of Chi. v. Barr, No. 18-2885
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (7th Circuit)
    • April 29, 2020
    ...where a nationwide injunction may, in very limited circumstances, be appropriate. See, e.g., Int'l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump, 857 F.3d 554, 605 (4th Cir. 2017) (upholding a nationwide injunction on the President's "travel ban" because plaintiffs were "dispersed throughout the Unit......
  • City & Cnty. of S.F. v. Sessions, Case No. 17-cv-04642-WHO
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. Northern District of California
    • October 5, 2018
    ...not cure the constitutional deficiency, which would endure in all [its] applications." See Int'l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump , 857 F.3d 554, 605 (4th Cir. 2017).California and San Francisco have shown that Section 1373 is unconstitutional and that the challenged conditions violate t......
  • City of S.F. v. Sessions, Case No. 18-cv-05146-WHO
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. Northern District of California
    • March 4, 2019
    ...which supports nationwide relief. City & Cty. of San Francisco , 897 F.3d at 1232 ; see also Int'l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump , 857 F.3d 554, 605 (4th Cir. 2017) (finding that relief limited to the parties in suit where there was a likely constitutional violation "would not cure th......
  • Am. Humanist Ass'n v. Maryland-National Capital Park, No. 15-2597.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (4th Circuit)
    • October 18, 2017
    ...intangible injury. See Suhre v. Haywood Cty. , 131 F.3d 1083, 1086 (4th Cir. 1997) ; see also Int'l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump , 857 F.3d 554, 582 (4th Cir.), cert. granted , ––– U.S. ––––, 137 S.Ct. 2080, 198 L.Ed.2d 643 (2017). Specifically, in religious display cases, "unwelcome......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
1 books & journal articles
  • The Judicial Response to the Presidential Polarization of the Administrative State
    • United States
    • American Review of Public Administration, The Nbr. 49-1, January 2019
    • January 1, 2019
    ...109, 133-169.Int’l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump, 241 F. Supp. 3d 539 (D. Md., 2017a)Int’l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump, 857 F.3d 554 (4th Cir. 2017b).Int’l Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 171879 (D. Md., Oct. 17, 2017c).Jellum, L. D. (2012). The impa......

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