International Shoe Co v. State of Washington, Office of Unemployment Compensation and Placement, No. 107

CourtUnited States Supreme Court
Writing for the CourtSTONE
Citation90 L.Ed. 95,326 U.S. 310,66 S.Ct. 154,161 A.L.R. 1057
PartiesINTERNATIONAL SHOE CO. v. STATE OF WASHINGTON, OFFICE OF UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION AND PLACEMENT et al
Docket NumberNo. 107
Decision Date03 December 1945

326 U.S. 310
66 S.Ct. 154
90 L.Ed. 95
INTERNATIONAL SHOE CO.

v.

STATE OF WASHINGTON, OFFICE OF UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION AND PLACEMENT et al.

No. 107.
Decided Dec. 3, 1945.

Appeal from the Supreme Court of the State of Washington.

Page 311

Mr. Henry C. Lowenhaupt, of St. Louis Mo., for appellant.

Mr. George W. Wilkins, of Olympia, Wash., for appellees.

Mr. Chief Justice STONE delivered the opinion of the Court.

The questions for decision are (1) whether, within the limitations of the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, appellant, a Delaware corporation, has by its activities in the State of Washington rendered itself amenable to proceedings in the courts of that state to recover unpaid contributions to the state unemployment compensation fund exacted by state statutes, Washington Unemployment Compensation Act, Washington Revised Statutes, § 9998—103a through § 9998—123a, 1941 Supp., and (2) whether the state can exact those contributions consistently with the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

The statutes in question set up a comprehensive scheme of unemployment compensation, the costs of which are defrayed by contributions required to be made by employers to a state unemployment compensation fund.

Page 312

The contributions are a specified percentage of the wages payable annually by each employer for his employees' services in the state. The assessment and collection of the contributions and the fund are administered by respondents. Section 14(c) of the Act, Wash.Rev.Stat. 1941 Supp., § 9998—114c, authorizes respondent Commissioner to issue an order and notice of assessment of delinquent contributions upon prescribed personal service of the notice upon the employer if found within the state, or, if not so found, by mailing the notice to the employer by registered mail at his last known address. That section also authorizes the Commissioner to collect the assessment by distraint if it is not paid within ten days after service of the notice. By §§ 14(e) and 6(b) the order of assessment may be administratively reviewed by an appeal tribunal within the office of unemployment upon petition of the employer, and this determination is by § 6(i) made subject to judicial review on questions of law by the state Superior Court, with further right of appeal in the state Supreme Court as in other civil cases.

In this case notice of assessment for the years in question was personally served upon a sales solicitor employed by appellant in the State of Washington, and a copy of the notice was mailed by registered mail to appellant at its address in St. Louis, Missouri. Appellant appeared specially before the office of unemployment and moved to set aside the order and notice of assessment on the ground that the service upon appellant's salesman was not proper service upon appellant; that appellant was not a corporation of the State of Washington and was not doing business within the state; that it had no agent within the state upon whom service could be made; and that appellant is not an employer and does not furnish employment within the meaning of the statute.

The motion was heard on evidence and a stipulation of facts by the appeal tribunal which denied the motion

Page 313

and ruled that respondent Commissioner was entitled to recover the unpaid contributions. That action was affirmed by the Commissioner; both the Superior Court and the Supreme Court affirmed. 154 P.2d 801. Appellant in each of these courts assailed the statute as applied, as a violation of the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and as imposing a constitutionally prohibited burden on interstate commerce. The cause comes here on appeal under § 237(a) of the Judicial Code, 28 U.S.C. § 344(a), 28 U.S.C.A. § 344(a), appellant assigning as error that the challenged statutes as applied infringe the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and the commerce clause.

The facts as found by the appeal tribunal and accepted by the state Superior Court and Supreme Court, are not in dispute. Appellant is a Delaware corporation, having its principal place of business in St. Louis, Missouri, and is engaged in the manufacture and sale of shoes and other footwear. It maintains places of business in several states, other than Washington, at which its manufacturing is carried on and from which its merchandise is distributed interstate through several sales units or branches located outside the State of Washington.

Appellant has no office in Washington and makes no contracts either for sale or purchase of merchandise there. It maintains no stock of merchandise in that state and makes there no deliveries of goods in intrastate commerce. During the years from 1937 to 1940, now in question, appellant employed eleven to thirteen salesmen under direct supervision and control of sales managers located in St. Louis. These salesmen resided in Washington; their principal activities were confined to that state; and they were compensated by commissions based upon the amount of their sales. The commissions for each year totaled more than $31,000. Appellant supplies its salesmen with a line of samples, each consisting of one shoe of a pair, which

Page 314

they display to prospective purchasers. On occasion they rent permanent sample rooms, for exhibiting samples, in business buildings, or rent rooms in hotels or business buildings temporarily for that purpose. The cost of such rentals is reimbursed by appellant.

The authority of the salesmen is limited to exhibiting their samples and soliciting orders from prospective buyers, at prices and on terms fixed by appellant. The salesmen transmit the orders to appellant's office in St. Louis for acceptance or rejection, and when accepted the merchandise for filling the orders is shipped f.o.b. from points outside Washington to the purchasers within the state. All the merchandise shipped into Washington is invoiced at the place of shipment from which collections are made. No salesman has authority to enter into contracts or to make collections.

The Supreme Court of Washington was of opinion that the regular and systematic solicitation of orders in the state by appellant's salesmen, resulting in a continuous flow of appellant's product into the state, was sufficient to constitute doing business in the state so as to make appellant amenable to suit in its courts. But it was also of opinion that there were sufficient additional activities shown to bring the case within the rule frequently stated, that solicitation within a state by the agents of a foreign corporation plus some additional activities there are sufficient to render the corporation amenable to suit brought in the courts of the state to enforce an obligation arising out of its activities there. International Harvester Co. v. Kentucky, 234 U.S. 579, 587, 34 S.Ct. 944, 946, 58 L.Ed. 1479; People's Tobacco Co. v. American Tobacco Co., 246 U.S. 79, 87, 38 S.Ct. 233, 235, 62 L.Ed. 587, Ann.Cas.1918C, 537; Frene v. Louisville Cement Co., 77 U.S.App.D.C. 129, 134 F.2d 511, 516, 146 A.L.R. 926. The court found such additional activities in the salesmen's display of samples sometimes in permanent display rooms, and the salesmen's residence within the state, continued over a period of years, all resulting in a

Page 315

substantial volume of merchandise regularly shipped by appellant to purchasers within the state. The court also held that the statute as applied did not invade the constitutional power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce and did not impose a prohibited burden on such commerce.

Appellant's argument, renewed here, that the statute imposes an unconstitutional burden on interstate commerce need not detain us. For 53 Stat. 1391, 26 U.S.C. § 1606(a), 26 U.S.C.A. Int.Rev.Code, § 1606(a), provides that 'No person required under a State law to make payments to an unemployment fund shall be relieved from compliance therewith on the ground that he is engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, or that the State law does not distinguish between employees engaged in interstate or foreign commerce and those engaged in intrastate commerce.' It is no longer debatable that Congress, in the exercise of the commerce power, may authorize the states, in specified ways, to regulate interstate commerce or impose burdens upon it. Kentucky Whip & Collar Co. v. Illinois Central R. Co., 299 U.S. 334, 57 S.Ct. 277, 81 L.Ed. 270; Perkins v. Pennsylvania, 314 U.S. 586, 62 S.Ct. 484, 86 L.Ed. 473; Standard Dredging Corp. v. Murphy, 319 U.S. 306, 308, 63 S.Ct. 1067, 1068, 87 L.Ed. 1416; Hooven & Allison v. Evatt, 324 U.S. 652, 679, 65 S.Ct. 870, 883; Southern Pacific Co. v. Arizona, 325 U.S. 761, 769, 65 S.Ct. 1515, 1520.

Appellant also insists that its activities within the state were not sufficient to manifest its 'presence' there and that in its absence the state courts were without jurisdiction, that consequently it was a denial of due process for the state to subject appellant to suit. It refers to those cases in which it was said that the mere solicitation of orders for the purchase of goods within a state, to be accepted without the state and filled by shipment of the purchased goods interstate, does not render the corporation seller amenable to suit within the state. See Green v. Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. Co., 205 U.S. 530, 533, 27 S.Ct. 595, 596, 51 L.Ed. 916; International Harvester Co. v. Kentucky, supra, 234 U.S. 586, 587, 34 S.Ct. 946, 58 L.Ed. 1479; Philadelphia

Page 316

& Reading R. Co. v. McKibbin, 243 U.S. 264, 268, 37 S.Ct. 280, 61 L.Ed. 710; People's Tobacco Co. v. American Tobacco Co., supra, 246 U.S. 87, 38 S.Ct. 235, 62 L.Ed. 587, Ann.Cas.1918C, 537. And appellant further argues that since it was not present within the state, it is a denial of due process to subject it to taxation or other money exaction. It thus denies the power of the state to lay the tax or to subject appellant to a...

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19979 practice notes
  • Madison Consulting Group v. State of S.C., No. 84-1160
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (7th Circuit)
    • January 4, 1985
    ...the forum state required for personal jurisdiction under the Fourteenth Amendment. See id. at 600; International Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. 310, 316, 66 S.Ct. 154, 158, 90 L.Ed. 95 (1945). In order to determine the meaning of the "minimum contacts" requirement in the context of the ca......
  • Pioneer Properties, Inc. v. Martin, No. 81-1137.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of Kansas
    • March 3, 1983
    ...Cantor, 259 F.Supp. 842, 847-48 (S.D.N. Y.1966).6 The familiar due process limitation, as stated in International Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. 310, 66 S.Ct. 154, 90 L.Ed. 95 (1945), requires the defendant have certain minimum contacts with the forum "such that the maintenance of the sui......
  • Citigroup Inc. v. City Holding Co., No. 99 Civ. 10115(RWS).
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. Southern District of New York
    • May 31, 2000
    ...must be determined whether exercising jurisdiction over the defendant comports with due process. See International Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. 310, 66 S.Ct. 154, 90 L.Ed. 95 (1945); see also Twine v. Levy, 746 F.Supp. 1202, 1204 A. Specific Jurisdiction New York's long arm statute, CPL......
  • C.S.B. Commodities, Inc. v. Urban Trend (Hk) Ltd., Case No. 08 cv 1548.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 7th Circuit. United States District Court (Northern District of Illinois)
    • January 7, 2009
    ...facto power over the defendant's person.'" Burnham, at 610 n. 1, 110 S.Ct. 2105 (quoting Int'l Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. at 316, 66 S.Ct. 154). Even that brief aside was made in response to a different question—whether individual defendants can ever be subject to general jurisdiction......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
19810 cases
  • Madison Consulting Group v. State of S.C., No. 84-1160
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (7th Circuit)
    • January 4, 1985
    ...the forum state required for personal jurisdiction under the Fourteenth Amendment. See id. at 600; International Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. 310, 316, 66 S.Ct. 154, 158, 90 L.Ed. 95 (1945). In order to determine the meaning of the "minimum contacts" requirement in the context of the ca......
  • Pioneer Properties, Inc. v. Martin, No. 81-1137.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of Kansas
    • March 3, 1983
    ...Cantor, 259 F.Supp. 842, 847-48 (S.D.N. Y.1966).6 The familiar due process limitation, as stated in International Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. 310, 66 S.Ct. 154, 90 L.Ed. 95 (1945), requires the defendant have certain minimum contacts with the forum "such that the maintenance of the sui......
  • Citigroup Inc. v. City Holding Co., No. 99 Civ. 10115(RWS).
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. Southern District of New York
    • May 31, 2000
    ...must be determined whether exercising jurisdiction over the defendant comports with due process. See International Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. 310, 66 S.Ct. 154, 90 L.Ed. 95 (1945); see also Twine v. Levy, 746 F.Supp. 1202, 1204 A. Specific Jurisdiction New York's long arm statute, CPL......
  • C.S.B. Commodities, Inc. v. Urban Trend (Hk) Ltd., Case No. 08 cv 1548.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 7th Circuit. United States District Court (Northern District of Illinois)
    • January 7, 2009
    ...facto power over the defendant's person.'" Burnham, at 610 n. 1, 110 S.Ct. 2105 (quoting Int'l Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. at 316, 66 S.Ct. 154). Even that brief aside was made in response to a different question—whether individual defendants can ever be subject to general jurisdiction......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
6 firm's commentaries
6 books & journal articles
  • FORUM SELECTION CLAUSES, NON-SIGNATORIES, AND PERSONAL JURISDICTION.
    • United States
    • Notre Dame Law Review Vol. 97 Nbr. 1, November 2021
    • November 1, 2021
    ...not sign. We discuss several traditional doctrines that permit this outcome in Section I.A. (11) See, e.g., Int'l Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. 310, 316 (12) The routine enforcement of forum selection clauses against non-signatories also generates other costs. If a person knows that he m......
  • Rethinking legal globalization: the case of transnational personal jurisdiction.
    • United States
    • William and Mary Law Review Vol. 54 Nbr. 5, April 2013
    • April 1, 2013
    ...Volkswagen Corp. v. Woodson, 444 U.S. 286 (1980). (112.) Here again, transfer can resolve the problem. See 28 U.S.C. § 1404. (113.) 326 U.S. 310, 316 (1945) (announcing the minimum contacts requirement for personal jurisdiction over out-of-state (114.) For a short list of some of the treatm......
  • Nonparty Jurisdiction.
    • United States
    • Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law Vol. 55 Nbr. 2, March 2022
    • March 1, 2022
    ...442 (AM. L. INST. 2018) (discussing the standard for foreign state compulsion). (16.) See id. (17.) Int'l Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. 310, 314 (1945) ("[A]gents of a foreign corporation plus some additional activities there are sufficient to render the corporation amenahle to suit hrou......
  • Time for a New Shoe? Making Sense of Specific Jurisdiction: Ford Motor Co. v. Montana Eighth Judicial District Court.
    • United States
    • Missouri Law Review Vol. 87 Nbr. 2, March 2022
    • March 22, 2022
    ...guidance, and support during the writing of this Note, as well as to the Missouri Law Review for their help in the editing process. (1) 326 U.S. 310 (2) See 141 S. Ct. 1017 (2021). (3) Id. at 1022. (4) Id. at 1033 (Alito, J., concurring). (5) Id. (Alito, J., concurring). (6) Id. (Alito, J.,......
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