Knight v. State of Ala., No. CV 83-M-1676-S.

CourtUnited States District Courts. 11th Circuit. United States District Court of Northern District of Alabama
Writing for the CourtWalter J. Merrill, Merrill, Porch, Doster & Dillon, Anniston, Ala., for Jacksonville State
Citation787 F. Supp. 1030
PartiesJohn F. KNIGHT, Jr., Alma S. Freeman, John T. Gibson, Susan Buskey, Carl Petty, Dennis Charles Barnett by his father Arthur D. Barnett, Vonda Cross, Tammi Palmer, Alease S. Sims, Stacey Levise Sims by her parents Levi Sims and Alease S. Sims, Gary Mitchell, Jr., Grover L. Brown, Frederick Carodine, Frankie Patricia Yarbrough, Dr. Charles Edwards McMillan, Horace W. Rice, Anthony Y. Lavonne Thompson by his mother Lois N. Thompson, Kreslyon Lynette Valrie by her mother Georgia S. Valrie, Dr. Taylor Byrd, and Dan Tibbs, Jr., individually and on behalf of others similarly situated, Plaintiffs and Plaintiffs-Intervenors, v. The STATE of ALABAMA; Guy Hunt, Governor of the State of Alabama; the Alabama State Board of Education; John M. Tyson, Jr., Steadman S. Shealy, Jr., Isabelle B. Thomasson, Ethel H. Hall, Willie J. Paul, Spencer Baccus, Victor P. Poole, and Evelyn Pratt, as members of the Alabama State Board of Education; Wayne Teague, State Superintendent of Education; the Alabama Commission on Higher Education; Jane McDonald, Clyde Foster, Katie Espy, Dr. James D. Grady, III, Charles F. Horton, Ken Lott, Steve Means, Borden Morrow, Frank A. Nix, Richard A. Pizitz, Sr., Philip A. Sellers, and Bob Word, as members of the Alabama Commission on Higher Education; the Alabama Public School and College Authority; G. Robin Swift, as State Finance Director and member of the Alabama Public School and College Authority; the Board of Trustees for Alabama A & M University; Franklin Perry, Eddie Player, Wayman Sherrer, George Miller, Chris McNair, W. Troy Massey, Robert Hughes, Thomas Fuller, Wayne Dean, Walter Carter, Dinsimore Robinson, and Dr. Oscar Tucker, as members of the Board of Trustees for Alabama A & M University; the Board of Trustees for Alabama State University; Richard Arrington, Jr., Ross Dunn, Tommy Gallion, Larue W. Harding, Andrew M. Hayden, Lillian Ann Hope, Larry H. Keener, Michael Onderdonk, Patsy B. Parker, Joe L. Reed, James A. Smith, and Mrs. Frankye Underwood, as members of the Board of Trustees of Alabama State University; Auburn University; R.C. Bamberg, Dr. Emory Cunningham, John V. Denson, Dr. Bessie Mae Holloway, Robert E. Lowder, Michael B. McCartney, William F. Nichols, W. James Samford, Jr., Morris W. Savage, and James T. Tatum, Jr., as members of the Board of Trustees of Auburn University; Troy State University; Harold R. Collins, R. Douglas Hawkins, Robert E. Kelly, Jack W. Wallace, John A. Teague, C.J. Hartley, Wallace D. Maline, Jr., Robert T. Wilson, Charles B. Martin, and Russ Campbell, as members of the Board of Trustees for Troy State University; the University of Alabama; Winton Blount, Aaron Aronov, Massey Bedsole, Frank Bromberg, Jr., O.H. Delchamps, Jr., Garry Neil Drummond, Sandral Hullett, William Henry Mitchell, John T. Oliver, Jr., Thomas E. Rast, Yetta G. Samford, Jr., George S. Shirley, Martha H. Simms, Cleophus Thomas, Jr., Cordell Wynn, John B. Hicks, and Dr. Thomas A. Bartlett, as members of the Board of Trustees for the University of Alabama, Defendants. UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff, v. The STATE OF ALABAMA; Guy Hunt, Governor of the State of Alabama; the Alabama State Board of Education; Wayne Teague, State Superintendent of Education; Alabama A & M University, a public corporation; Alabama State University, a public corporation; Auburn University, a public corporation; Jacksonville State University, a public corporation; Livingston University, a public corporation; Troy State University, a public corporation; the University of Montevallo, a public corporation; the University of Alabama, a public corporation; the University of North Alabama, a public corporation; the University of South Alabama, a public corporation; Athens State College, an educational institution; Calhoun State Community College, an educational institution; the Alabama Commission on Higher Education; and the Alabama Public School and College Authority, Defendants.
Decision Date30 December 1991
Docket NumberNo. CV 83-M-1676-S.

787 F. Supp. 1030

John F. KNIGHT, Jr., Alma S. Freeman, John T. Gibson, Susan Buskey, Carl Petty, Dennis Charles Barnett by his father Arthur D. Barnett, Vonda Cross, Tammi Palmer, Alease S. Sims, Stacey Levise Sims by her parents Levi Sims and Alease S. Sims, Gary Mitchell, Jr., Grover L. Brown, Frederick Carodine, Frankie Patricia Yarbrough, Dr. Charles Edwards McMillan, Horace W. Rice, Anthony Y. Lavonne Thompson by his mother Lois N. Thompson, Kreslyon Lynette Valrie by her mother Georgia S. Valrie, Dr. Taylor Byrd, and Dan Tibbs, Jr., individually and on behalf of others similarly situated, Plaintiffs and Plaintiffs-Intervenors,
v.
The STATE of ALABAMA; Guy Hunt, Governor of the State of Alabama; the Alabama State Board of Education; John M. Tyson, Jr., Steadman S. Shealy, Jr., Isabelle B. Thomasson, Ethel H. Hall, Willie J. Paul, Spencer Baccus, Victor P. Poole, and Evelyn Pratt, as members of the Alabama State Board of Education; Wayne Teague, State Superintendent of Education; the Alabama

[787 F. Supp. 1031]

Commission on Higher Education; Jane McDonald, Clyde Foster, Katie Espy, Dr. James D. Grady, III, Charles F. Horton, Ken Lott, Steve Means, Borden Morrow, Frank A. Nix, Richard A. Pizitz, Sr., Philip A. Sellers, and Bob Word, as members of the Alabama Commission on Higher Education; the Alabama Public School and College Authority; G. Robin Swift, as State Finance Director and member of the Alabama Public School and College Authority; the Board of Trustees for Alabama A & M University; Franklin Perry, Eddie Player, Wayman Sherrer, George Miller, Chris McNair, W. Troy Massey, Robert Hughes, Thomas Fuller, Wayne Dean, Walter Carter, Dinsimore Robinson, and Dr. Oscar Tucker, as members of the Board of Trustees for Alabama A & M University; the Board of Trustees for Alabama State University; Richard Arrington, Jr., Ross Dunn, Tommy Gallion, Larue W. Harding, Andrew M. Hayden, Lillian Ann Hope, Larry H. Keener, Michael Onderdonk, Patsy B. Parker, Joe L. Reed, James A. Smith, and Mrs. Frankye Underwood, as members of the Board of Trustees of Alabama State University; Auburn University; R.C. Bamberg, Dr. Emory Cunningham, John V. Denson, Dr. Bessie Mae Holloway, Robert E. Lowder, Michael B. McCartney, William F. Nichols, W. James Samford, Jr., Morris W. Savage, and James T. Tatum, Jr., as members of the Board of Trustees of Auburn University; Troy State University; Harold R. Collins, R. Douglas Hawkins, Robert E. Kelly, Jack W. Wallace, John A. Teague, C.J. Hartley, Wallace D. Maline, Jr., Robert T. Wilson, Charles B. Martin, and Russ Campbell, as members of the Board of Trustees for Troy State University; the University of Alabama; Winton Blount, Aaron Aronov, Massey Bedsole, Frank Bromberg, Jr., O.H. Delchamps, Jr., Garry Neil Drummond, Sandral Hullett, William Henry Mitchell, John T. Oliver, Jr., Thomas E. Rast, Yetta G. Samford, Jr., George S. Shirley, Martha H. Simms, Cleophus Thomas, Jr., Cordell Wynn, John B. Hicks, and Dr. Thomas A. Bartlett, as members of the Board of Trustees for the University of Alabama, Defendants.
UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff,
v.
The STATE OF ALABAMA; Guy Hunt, Governor of the State of Alabama; the Alabama State Board of Education; Wayne Teague, State Superintendent of Education; Alabama A & M University, a public corporation; Alabama State University, a public corporation; Auburn University, a public corporation; Jacksonville State University, a public corporation; Livingston University, a public corporation; Troy State University, a public corporation; the University of Montevallo, a public corporation; the University of Alabama, a public corporation; the University of North Alabama, a public corporation; the University of South Alabama, a public corporation; Athens State College, an educational institution; Calhoun State Community College, an educational institution; the Alabama Commission on Higher Education; and the Alabama Public School and College Authority, Defendants

No. CV 83-M-1676-S.

United States District Court, N.D. Alabama, S.D.

December 30, 1991.


787 F. Supp. 1032
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787 F. Supp. 1033
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787 F. Supp. 1034
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787 F. Supp. 1035
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787 F. Supp. 1036
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787 F. Supp. 1037
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787 F. Supp. 1038
Donald V. Watkins, James U. Blacksher, Leslie Proll, Demetrius C. Newton, Birmingham, Ala., for John F. Knight, Jr., et al
787 F. Supp. 1039

Frank W. Donaldson, U.S. Atty., Caryl P. Privett, Asst. U.S. Atty., Craig M. Crenshaw, Jr., Nathaniel Douglas, Dept. of Justice, Washington, D.C., for U.S.

Robert D. Hunter, John E. Grenier, Rebecca S. Dunnie, Lange, Simpson, Robinson & Somerville, Birmingham, Ala., Richard N. Meadows, State Dept. of Educ., Mark Montiel, Office of the Governor, Ira De Ment, Jeffery A. Foshee, Jim R. Ippolito, Jr., Office of General Counsel, State Dept. of Educ., Montgomery, Ala., for State of Ala., Guy Hunt, Alabama State Bd. of Educ. and Wayne Teague.

Joe R. Whatley, Cooper, Mitch & Crawford, Birmingham, Ala., Kenneth L. Thomas, Tyron C. Means, Montgomery, Ala., John C. Falkenberry, Birmingham, Ala., for Alabama A & M University.

Solomon S. Seay, Jr., Montgomery, Ala., Armand Derfner, Charleston, S.C., Fred D. Gray, Gray, Langford, Sapp, McGowan & Gray, Tuskegee, Ala., Terry G. Davis, Montgomery, Ala., for Alabama State University.

Thomas W. Thagard, Jr., David R. Boyd, Robin G. Laurie, Balch & Bingham, Montgomery, Ala., Edward S. Allen, J. Richard Carrigan, M. Stanford Blanton, Balch & Bingham, Birmingham, Ala., Thomas D. Samford, III, Auburn, Ala., for Auburn University.

Walter J. Merrill, Merrill, Porch, Doster & Dillon, Anniston, Ala., for Jacksonville State.

J. Fredric Ingram, Burr & Forman, Birmingham, Ala., for Livingston University.

William F. Murray, Jr., Burr & Forman, Birmingham, Ala., Richard F. Calhoun, Calhoun, Watkins & Clower, Troy, Ala., for Troy State University.

Carl E. Johnson, Jr., J. Scott Greene, Bishop, Colvin & Sweeney, Birmingham, Ala., for University of Montevallo.

C. Glenn Powell, Stanley J. Murphy, Norman Lemley, Tuscaloosa, Ala., Robert W. Rieder, Cindy S. Waid, Ina B. Leonard, Huntsville, Ala., Joseph J. Levin, Jr., Colton and Boykin, Washington, D.C., for University of Alabama.

Ernest N. Blasingame, Jr., Florence, Ala., for University of North Alabama.

Mylan R. Engel, Engel, Walsh & Zoghby, Maxey J. Roberts, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Ala., Danny R. Farnell, Montgomery, Ala., for University of South Alabama.

Jeffrey Foshee, State Bd. of Educ., Montgomery, Ala., for Athens State College, Calhoun State Community College.

Robert D. Hunter, John E. Grenier, Lange, Simpson, Robinson & Somerville, Birmingham, Ala., for Alabama Com'n on Higher Educ. and Alabama Public School and College Authority.

 TABLE OF CONTENTS
                INTRODUCTION ................................................................... 1045
                STATEMENT OF THE CASE .......................................................... 1047
                CONTENTIONS OF THE PARTIES ..................................................... 1051
                 A. Knight Plaintiffs ........................................................ 1051
                 B. The United States Government ............................................. 1053
                 C. State Defendants ......................................................... 1055
                 D. Auburn University ........................................................ 1055
                 E. The University of Alabama System ......................................... 1060
                 F. The Troy State University System ......................................... 1060
                 G. State Board of Education ................................................. 1061
                 H. The University of North Alabama .......................................... 1061
                 FINDINGS OF FACT
                GENERAL OVERVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN ALABAMA ................................ 1061
                 A. Enrollments .............................................................. 1061
                 B. Federal Financial Assistance For Alabama's Higher Education System ....... 1065
                

787 F. Supp. 1040
SUMMARY OF THE HISTORICAL EVIDENCE ............................................. 1065 A. The Nineteenth Century ................................................... 1066 1. The Antebellum Period ................................................. 1066 2. The Reconstruction Period ............................................. 1067 3. The Early Establishment of the Board of Trustees for the University of Alabama and Auburn University ....................................... 1072 i. Auburn University ............................................... 1072 ii. The University of Alabama ....................................... 1072 4. Blacks' Early Efforts for Equality Through Education .................. 1073 5. Blacks' Early Efforts to Establish Colleges ........................... 1074 i. Alabama State University ........................................ 1074 a. The State's Nineteenth Century Promise of a University Education for Blacks at Alabama State University ..................... 1082 ii. Alabama Agricultural & Mechanical University .................... 1084 6. Educational Access and Black Political Power: The End of the Nineteenth Century ............................................................ 1089 B. The Twentieth Century .................................................... 1090 1. Disenfranchisement's Impact on Black Education ........................ 1090 2. Black Higher Education and the Progressive Period ..................... 1091 3. The Period Between the World Wars ..................................... 1095 4. Alabama's Response to Federal Enforcement of Separate But Equal ....... 1097 5. Massive Resistance to Integration ..................................... 1103 i. The Legislature ................................................. 1103 ii. The University of Alabama .......................................
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25 practice notes
  • Ass'n of Mexican-American Educators v. State of Cal., No. C-92-3874 WHO.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. Northern District of California
    • August 25, 1993
    ...v. School Dist. of Ferndale, 577 F.2d 1339, 1350 n. 18 (6th Cir.1978) (State of Michigan as Title VI defendant); Knight v. Alabama, 787 F.Supp. 1030, 1361-65 (N.D.Ala.1991); United States v. Louisiana, 692 F.Supp. 642, 650-53 The consistent understanding, as reflected by cases such as these......
  • Sandoval v. Hagan, No. Civ.A. 96-D-1875-N.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 11th Circuit. Middle District of Alabama
    • January 1, 1999
    ...Co., Inc., 911 F.2d 1377, 1384 (10th Cir.1990); Lussier v. Dugger, 904 F.2d 661, 664-65 (11th Cir.1990); Knight v. State of Alabama, 787 F.Supp. 1030, 1364 (N.D.Ala.1991), affirmed in part, vacated in part on other grounds, and reversed in part on other grounds, 14 F.3d 1534 (11th Cir.1994)......
  • Lynch ex rel. Lynch v. Alabama, Civil Action No. 08-S-450-NE.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 11th Circuit. United States District Court of Northern District of Alabama
    • July 24, 2008
    ...I"), rev'd 828 F.2d 1532 (11th Cir.1987) ("Knight II"), cert. denied, 487 U.S. 1210, 108 S.Ct. 2857, 101 L.Ed.2d 894 (1988), on remand, 787 F.Supp. 1030 (N.D.Ala.1991) ("Knight III"), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, vacated in part, 14 F.3d 1534 (11th Cir.1994) ("Knight IV"), on remand, Knigh......
  • Coleman v. Seldin
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court (New York)
    • March 8, 1999
    ...783 F.2d 154 [9th Cir., 1986]; United States v. School Dist. Of Ferndale, 577 F.2d 1339, 1350 n. 18 [6th Cir., 1978]; Knight v. Alabama, 787 F.Supp. 1030, 1361-65 [N.D.Ala., 1991]; United States v. Louisiana, 692 F.Supp. 642, 650-653 [E.D.La., 1988] ). The Court in Association of Mexican-Am......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
25 cases
  • Ass'n of Mexican-American Educators v. State of Cal., No. C-92-3874 WHO.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. Northern District of California
    • August 25, 1993
    ...v. School Dist. of Ferndale, 577 F.2d 1339, 1350 n. 18 (6th Cir.1978) (State of Michigan as Title VI defendant); Knight v. Alabama, 787 F.Supp. 1030, 1361-65 (N.D.Ala.1991); United States v. Louisiana, 692 F.Supp. 642, 650-53 The consistent understanding, as reflected by cases such as these......
  • Sandoval v. Hagan, No. Civ.A. 96-D-1875-N.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 11th Circuit. Middle District of Alabama
    • January 1, 1999
    ...Co., Inc., 911 F.2d 1377, 1384 (10th Cir.1990); Lussier v. Dugger, 904 F.2d 661, 664-65 (11th Cir.1990); Knight v. State of Alabama, 787 F.Supp. 1030, 1364 (N.D.Ala.1991), affirmed in part, vacated in part on other grounds, and reversed in part on other grounds, 14 F.3d 1534 (11th Cir.1994)......
  • Lynch ex rel. Lynch v. Alabama, Civil Action No. 08-S-450-NE.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 11th Circuit. United States District Court of Northern District of Alabama
    • July 24, 2008
    ...I"), rev'd 828 F.2d 1532 (11th Cir.1987) ("Knight II"), cert. denied, 487 U.S. 1210, 108 S.Ct. 2857, 101 L.Ed.2d 894 (1988), on remand, 787 F.Supp. 1030 (N.D.Ala.1991) ("Knight III"), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, vacated in part, 14 F.3d 1534 (11th Cir.1994) ("Knight IV"), on remand, Knigh......
  • Coleman v. Seldin
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court (New York)
    • March 8, 1999
    ...783 F.2d 154 [9th Cir., 1986]; United States v. School Dist. Of Ferndale, 577 F.2d 1339, 1350 n. 18 [6th Cir., 1978]; Knight v. Alabama, 787 F.Supp. 1030, 1361-65 [N.D.Ala., 1991]; United States v. Louisiana, 692 F.Supp. 642, 650-653 [E.D.La., 1988] ). The Court in Association of Mexican-Am......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

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