McIntyre v. U.S., Civil Action No. 01-CV-10408-RCL.

Decision Date05 September 2006
Docket NumberCivil Action No. 01-CV-10408-RCL.
Citation447 F.Supp.2d 54
PartiesEmily McINTYRE and Christopher McIntyre as co-administrators of the Estate of John L. McIntyre, Plaintiffs, v. The UNITED STATES of America, et al., Defendants.
CourtU.S. District Court — District of Massachusetts

Edward E. Berkin, Douglas S. Brooks, Kelly, Libby & Hoopes, PC, Boston, MA, Frank C. Corso Law, Office of Frank C. Corso, Boston, MA, Albert F. Cullen, Jr., Boston, MA, Jeffrey A. Denner, Denner Associates, P.C, Boston, MA, James P. Duggan, Boston, MA, Peter E. Gelhaar, Donnelly, Conroy & Gelhaar, LLP, Boston, MA, Robert A. George Robert, A. George & Associates, PC, Boston, MA, Edward T. Hinchey, Sloane & Walsh, Boston, MA, Michael A. Laurano, Laurano & Laurano, Boston, MA, Frank A. Libby, Jr., Kelly, Libby & Hoopes, PC, Boston, MA, James P. McDonald, Boston, MA, Stephen Neyman, Attorney at Law, Boston, MA, Robert S. Sinsheimer, Sinsheimer & Associates, Susan E. Sivacek, Sinsheimer & Associates, Boston, MA, William E. Christie, Shaheen & Gordon, P.A., Concord, NH, Steven M. Gordon, Concord, NH, Ann M. Donovan Law, Office of Ann M. Donovan, Newton, MA, George L. Garfinkle, Attorney at Law, Brookline, MA, Paul J. Griffin, Milton, MA, Christopher T. Meier, Mirick, O'Connell, DeMallie & Lougee, LLP, Worcester, MA, Peter J. Perroni, Nolan/Perroni, LLP, Lowell, MA, Edward M. Reilly, Law Offices of Edward M. Reilly, Abington, MA, Thomas C. Tretter, Healey, Deshaies & Gagliardi, PC, Amesbury, MA, for Plaintiffs.

Katherine A. Carey, Lawrence Eiser, Catherine J. Finnegan, Andrew D. Kaplan, Margaret Krawiec, Bridget Bailey Lipscomb Richard Montague, U.S. Department of Justice, Mary McElroy Leach, Washington, DC, Richard E. Bowman, Rose, Chinitz & Rose, Boston, MA, Kate M. Brown, William A. Brown, Boston, MA, Eric P. Christofferson, Ropes & Gray, LLP, Boston, MA, Michael K. Fee, Ropes & Gray LLP, Boston, MA, Edward J. Lonergan, Douglas I. Louison, Stephen C. Pfaff, Merrick, Louison & Costello, Christine M. Roach, Roach & Carpenter, P.C., Boston, MA, Alan D. Rose, Jr., Alan D. Rose, Sr., Rose, Chinitz & Rose, Boston, MA, Tory A. Weigand, Morrison, Mahoney, & Miller LLP, Boston, MA, Brian P. Fitzsimmons, Hanley, Hassett & Fitzsimmons, LLC, Quincy, MA, A. Douglas Matthews, Westport, MA, E. Peter Mullane, Mullane, Michel & McInnes, Cambridge, MA, for Defendants.

Earle C. Cooley, Cooley Manion Jones LLP, Kevin M. Glynn, Boston, MA, for Movants.

Joseph J. Machera, Law Offices of Joseph J. Machera, Street Revere, MA, for Intervenor.

Dean A. Mazzone, Attorney General's Office, for Interested Party.

Jaren D. Wilcockson, Goodwin Procter, LLP, Boston, MA, for Trustee.

MEMORANDUM OF FINDINGS OF FACT AND CONCLUSIONS OF LAW

LINDSAY, District Judge.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
                I. Introduction.......................................................... 58
                II. Findings of Background Facts 62 ..................................... 62
                    A. The FBI and Cosa Nostra .......................................... 62
                       1. National Priority of the Organized Crime Program............... 62
                       2. Priorities of the Boston Division's Organized Crime Program.... 62
                       3. Priorities of the C-3 Squad in the Boston Office............... 63
                       4. Organization of the C-3 Squad.................................  64
                    B. The FBI and Informants............................................ 65
                       1. Importance of Informants....................................... 66
                       2. Responsibility for Development and Operation of Informants..... 66
                          a. Special Agent in Charge..................................... 66
                          b. Supervisory Special Agents.................................. 67
                          c. Special Agents.............................................. 67
                       3. Policies and Practices Regarding the Development and Operation of
                            Informants................................................... 67
                          a. Suitability................................................. 67
                          b. Criminal Background and Ongoing Criminal Activity........... 68
                          c. Operation of Informants..................................... 71
                   C. Recruitment and Use of Bulger and Flemmi as FBI Informants......... 73
                   D. Involvement of Bulger and Flemmi in Violent Criminal Activity...... 75
                      1. Loansharking and Bookmaking..................................... 76
                      2. Reputation for Violence......................................... 77
                      3. Specific Criminal Acts.......................................... 78
                         a. Bennett Murder and Fitzgerald Bombing........................ 78
                         b. Castucci Murder.............................................. 79
                         c. "Race Fix" Case.............................................. 80
                         d. Wheeler, Halloran, Donahue and Callahan Murders.............. 81
                         e. Drug Trafficking............................................. 93
                   E. Connolly Praised for Work with Informants.......................... 96
                III. Findings of Fact Regarding the Murder of John McIntyre.............. 98
                
                   A. McIntyre's Cooperation with Law Enforcement........................ 98
                   B. Leak of McIntyre's Identity....................................... 102
                   C. Murder of John McIntyre........................................... 102
                IV. Conclusions of Law and Ultimate Findings of Fact.................... 104
                    A. Duty............................................................. 106
                    B. Breach........................................................... 108
                    C. Scope of Employment.............................................. 108
                    D. Proximate Cause.................................................. 111
                    E. Injury........................................................... 112
                    F. Conclusion as to Liability....................................... 112
                    G. Damages.......................................................... 112
                       1. Proper Claimant Under Wrongful Death Statute.................. 112
                       2. Economic Damages.............................................. 116
                       3. Loss of Consortium............................................ 116
                       4. Funeral and Burial Expenses................................... 117
                       5. Conscious Suffering........................................... 117
                V. Conclusion........................................................... 119
                
I. Introduction

This case arises out of the decades-long association between the Boston office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ("FBI") and two of the most notorious criminals in Boston history—James J. Bulger ("Bulger") and Stephen J. Flemmi ("Flemmi"), who were, at the times relevant to this case, members of a criminal organization known as the Winter Hill Gang.1 From the mid-1960s until 1990, Bulger and Flemmi periodically served as FBI informants, assisting the FBI in the prosecution of the Italian organized crime syndicate Cosa Nostra,2 also known as the Mafia. Since this relationship was brought to light in United States v. Salemme, 91 F.Supp.2d 141 (D.Mass.1999), rev'd in part, 225 F.3d 78 (1st Cir.2000), cert denied sub nom. Flemmi v. United States, 531 U.S. 1170, 121 S.Ct. 1137, 148 L.Ed.2d 1002 (2001), a number of civil suits have been filed against the United States and agents of the FBI by family members and personal representatives of persons allegedly murdered by Bulger and Flemmi while the two were serving as FBI informants. Most of these lawsuits have been assigned to me.

The parties in the instant case seek damages from the United States and several individual defendants for the 1984 murder of John McIntyre ("McIntyre"), who was killed by Bulger and Flemmi after FBI agent John Connolly ("Connolly") disclosed to them critical information that led to the discovery of McIntyre's identity as a government informant. The plaintiffs here, Emily McIntyre3 and Christopher McIntyre, as co-administrators of the Estate of John L. McIntyre have brought suit pursuant to the Federal Tort Claims Act ("FTCA"), 28 U.S.C. §§ 2671, et seq., Chapter 229 of the Massachusetts General Laws, and Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 403 U.S. 388, 91 S.Ct. 1999, 29 L.Ed.2d 619 (1971), against Bulger and Flemmi and their criminal cohort, Kevin Weeks ("Weeks"); the United States of America; and eight former agents of the Boston office of the FBI, H. Paul Rico, John Morris, John J. Connolly, Roderick Kennedy, Robert Fitzpatrick, James Ring, James Greenleaf, and James Ahearn. Bulger and Flemmi have defaulted, see Notice of Default as to James Bulger, McIntyre v. United States, No. 01-10408 (D.Mass. Nov. 15, 2001); Notice of Default as to Stephen Flemmi, McIntyre v. United States, No. 01-10408 (D.Mass. Nov. 15, 2001), and a suggestion of death has been filed with respect to Rico, see Suggestion of Death, McIntyre v. United States, No. 01-10408 (D.Mass. Jan. 20, 2004). The case has proceeded against the remaining defendants.4

On May 23, 2006, with the consent of all parties, I bifurcated the trial of the plaintiffs' claims against the United States from the trial of the plaintiffs' claims against the individual defendants, see Order Granting Motions to Bifurcate, McIntyre v. United States, No. 01-10408 (D.Mass. May 23, 2006), and the plaintiffs' claims against the United States proceeded to trial on June 5, 2006. The claims against the United States, enumerated in counts I through VI of the complaint, were brought pursuant to the FTCA, which provides, in substance, that the United States may be sued for money damages for personal injury or death caused by the negligent or otherwise wrongful acts or omissions of its employees while acting within the scope of their office or employment. See 28 U.S.C. § 1346(b).

It is undisputed that McIntyre was murdered on November 30, 1984 by Bulger and Flemmi. The plaintiffs have alleged several theories of liability. First, they assert that...

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