Metropolis Theater Company v. City of Chicago

Decision Date07 April 1913
Docket NumberNo. 181,181
Citation228 U.S. 61,33 S.Ct. 441,57 L.Ed. 730
PartiesMETROPOLIS THEATER COMPANY et al., Plffs. in Err., v. CITY OF CHICAGO and Ernest J. Magerstadt
CourtU.S. Supreme Court

Bill in equity brought in the circuit court of Cook county, state of Illinois, to restrain the enforcement of a certain ordinance of the city of Chicago, requiring licenses for places of amusement. The ordinance divides the places of amusement into twenty-one classes. The entertainments offered by complainants fall within the first class, which is defined as 'all entertainments of a theatrical, dramatic, vaudeville, variety, or spectacular character.' The license fee is graded according to the price of admission, exclusive of box seats, as follows: If $1 or more, the fee is $1,000; if it exceeds 50 cents but is less than $1, $400; if it exceeds 30 cents, but is less than 50 cents, $300; if it exceeds 20 cents, but not more than 30 cents, $250; if it does not exceed 20 cents, $200.

The foundation of the bill is that the ordinance, in so far as it charges an annual license fee of $1,000 upon theaters charging $1 or more for any seat, exclusive of box seats, violates the 14th Amendment of the Constitution of the United States.

The city filed a demurrer to the bill, which was overruled, and, the city declining to plead further, a decree was entered, enjoining the enforcement of § 104 of the ordinance. The decree was reversed by the supreme court of the state, and the case remanded, with directions to sustain the demurrer and dismiss the bill. This writ of error was then sued out.

The bill describes the complainants as persons, firms, or corporations, and describes the theaters conducted by each of them as follows: The Colonial theater, capacity 1, 482 seats; McVicker's theater, 1,868 seats; Illinois theater, 1,249 seats; Powers's theater, 1,115 seats; Studebaker theater, 1,350 seats; Cort theater, 962 seats; Grand Opera House, 1,379 seats; Great Northern theater, 1,205 seats; LaSalle theater, 770 seats; Princess theater, 950 seats; Chicago Opera House, 1,434 seats; Olympic theater, 1,532 seats; Garrick theater, 1,259 seats; Whitney Opera House, 708 seats.

The following are the other pertinent facts: The theaters cannot, under the ordinance, accommodate or grant admission to any number of persons in excess of the number of the seats.

There have been given and produced at the theaters respectively, excepting in the Cort theater, for more than two years last past, and in the Cort theater for more than two months last past, entertainments and performances of the various kinds described in the ordinance and in some of the theaters the price of admission has not exceeded $1 and in others it has not exceeded $2. In some the minimum price of admission has been 50 cents, and in some 25 cents. All the theaters, with the exception of one or two, have at different times during the last two years made, and intend in the future to make different maximum and minimum prices of admission, dependent upon the location of seats and according to the cost of production, the season of the year, and condition of business. It is impossible to tell in advance the condition of business or the character of entertainment or the highest or lowest prices of admission. At the present time the highest price to some parts of each of the theaters is $1 or over, and the lowest price is much less. There is not now and never has been any fixed rule or standard among theaters in Chicago as to the number of seats in any theater for which an admission fee of $1 or over is made. In some of the theaters owned and operated by complainants, and in some theaters owned and operated by others, there are more seats sold for more than $1 for a performance, than in others operated by complainants. The gross revenue per performance of complainants' theaters and other theaters, if all of the seats were occupied, would differ and vary according to the seating capacity of the theaters, respectively, and also according to the conditions prevailing, including in the conditions the charge made for admission, and the different prices of admission to different parts of the theaters, there being no theaters in Chicago wherein the prices of admission to all parts of the theater are identical with the prices of admission charged for the same number of seats in any other theater.

The seating capacity of the largest theater of complainants is 1,868, and of the smallest 708, the gross revenue of the latter being, when fully occupied, less than $1,000, and, of the former not more than $1,500, figured on the basis of existing prices of admission to all parts of the theater. The largest theater or place of amusement in Chicago (the performance being of the kind described in the ordinance, and similar to those given by complainants) has a seating capacity...

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