Moody v. Flowers Board of Supervisors of Suffolk County, New York v. Bianchi

Decision Date22 May 1967
Docket Number491,Nos. 624,s. 624
Citation18 L.Ed.2d 643,387 U.S. 97,87 S.Ct. 1544
PartiesEarle C. MOODY et al., Appellants, v. Richmond M. FLOWERS et al. BOARD OF SUPERVISORS OF SUFFOLK COUNTY, NEW YORK et al., Appellants, v. I. William BIANCHI, Jr., et al
CourtU.S. Supreme Court

No. 624:

[Syllabus from pages 97-98 intentionally omitted] Charles S. Rhyne, Washington, D.C., for appellants.

Truman Hobbs, Montgomery, Ala., for appellees.

No. 491:

Stanley S. Corwin, Greenport, N.Y., for appellants.

Frederick Block, Port Jefferson Station, N.Y., and Richard C. Cahn, Huntington, N.Y., for appellees.

Nos. 624, 491:

Francis X. Beytagh, Jr., Cleveland, Ohio, for the United States, as amicus curiae, pro hac vice, by special leave of Court.

Mr. Justice DOUGLAS delivered the opinion of the Court.

The threshold question in these cases is whether this Court has jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1253 on direct appeals from the decisions of the respective District Courts purportedly convened pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2281. The answer to that question in turn depends upon whether the three-judge courts in these cases were properly convened.

In No. 624, appellants attack the validity of an Alabama statute (Ala.Laws 1957, Act No. 9 p. 30) prescribing the apportionment and districting scheme for electing members of the Houston County Board of Revenue and Control. Under the statute, the Board consists of five members, each elected by the qualified electors of the district of which he is a resident. The challenged statute prescribes the areas constituting the various districts. The action is brought against the appellees, including some state officials, seeking a declaration that the statute is invalid and an injunction prohibiting its enforcement, and requesting that the court order at-large elections until the State Legislature redistricts and reapportions the Board on a population basis. The theory is that the apportionment and districting scheme results in the over representation of certain areas and the under-representation of others. The complaint also requested the convening of a three-judge court. A three-judge court was convened and the complaint was dismissed. D.C., 256 F.Supp. 195. We noted probable jurisdiction, 385 U.S. 966, 87 S.Ct. 499, 17 L.Ed.2d 431.

In No. 491, appellees brought an action against appellants, members of the Suffolk County Board of Supevi sors, seeking a declaration that so much of § 203 of the Suffolk County Charter (N.Y. Laws 1958, c. 278) as provides that each supervisor shall have one vote as a member of the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors violates the Fourteenth Amendment and an injunction prohibiting the appellants from acting as a Board of Supervisors unless and until a change in their voting strength is made, and requesting the convening of a three-judge court. The 10 towns of Suffolk County, New York, elect, by popular vote, a supervisor every two years. The supervisor is the town's representative on the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors. Suffolk County Charter § 201. And, each supervisor is entitled to one vote on the County Board of Supervisors. Suffolk County Charter § 203. Pursuant to Art. 9, §§ 1 and 2, of the New York Constitution, the State Legislature approved a charter for the county containing, inter alia, the above provisions. N.Y. Laws 1958, c. 278.

Appellees claim that granting each supervisor one vote regardless of the population of the town which elected him results in an over representation of the towns with small populations and underrepresentation of towns with large populations.

A three-judge court was convened and it declared § 203 of the Suffolk County Charter invalid because in conflict with the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and ordered the Board to submit to the county electorate a plan for reconstruction of the Board so as to insure voter equality. D.C., 256 F.Supp. 617. We noted probable jurisdiction. Sailors v. Board of Education of County of Kent, 385 U.S. 966, 87 S.Ct. 499, 17 L.Ed.2d 431.

This Court has jurisdiction of these direct appeals under 28 U.S.C. § 1253 only if the respective actions were 'required * * * to be heard and determined by a district court of three judges.' Section 2281 of 28 U.S.C. requires that a three-judge court be convened in any case in which a preliminary or permanent injunction is sought to restrain 'the enforcement, operation or execution of any State statute by restraining the action of any officer of such State in the enforcement or execution of such statute * * *.' The purpose of § 2281 is 'to prevent a single federal judge from being able to paralyze totally the operation of an entire regulatory scheme * * * by issuance of a broad injunctive order' (Kennedy v. Mendoza-Martinez, 372 U.S. 144, 154, 83 S.Ct. 554, 560, 9 L.Ed.2d 644) and to provide 'procedural protection against an improvident state-wide doom by a federal court of a state's legislative policy.' Phillips v. United States, 312 U.S. 246, 251, 61 S.Ct. 480, 483, 85 L.Ed. 800. In order for § 2281 to come into play the plaintiffs must seek to enjoin state statutes 'by whatever method they may be adopted, to which a State gives her sanction * * *.' American Federation of Labor v. Watson, 327 U.S. 582, 592—593, 66 S.Ct. 761, 766, 90 L.Ed.2d 873.

The Court has consistently construed the section as authorizing a three-judge court not merely because a state statute is involved but only when a state statute of general and statewide application is sought to be enjoined. See, e.g., Ex parte Collins, 277 U.S. 565, 48 S.Ct. 585, 72 L.Ed. 990; Ex parte Public National Bank, of New York, 278 U.S. 101, 49 S.Ct. 43, 73 L.Ed. 202; Rorick v. Board of Commissioners, of Everglades Drainage Dist., 307 U.S. 208, 59 S.Ct. 808, 83 L.Ed. 1242; City of Cleveland v. United States, 323 U.S. 329, 332, 65 S.Ct. 280, 281, 89 L.Ed. 274; Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, 377 U.S. 218, 227—228, 84 S.Ct. 1226, 1231—1232, 12 L.Ed.2d 256. The term 'statute' in § 2281 does not encompass local ordinances or resolutions. The officer sought to be enjoined must be a state officer; a three-judge court need not be convened where the action seeks to enjoin a local officer (Ex parte Collins, supra; Rorick v. Board of Commissioners, supra) unless he is functioning pursuant to a statewide policy and performing a state function. Spielman Motor Sales Co. v. Dodge, 295 .S . 89, 55 S.Ct. 678, 79 L.Ed. 1322. Nor does the section come into operation where an action is brought against state officers performing matters of purely local concern. Rorick v. Board of Commissioners, supra. And, the requirement that the action seek to enjoin a state officer cannot be circumvented 'by joining, as nominal parties defendant, state officers whose action is not the effective means of the enforcement or execution of the challenged statute.' Wilentz v. Sovereign Camp, WOW, 306 U.S. 573, 579—580, 59 S.Ct. 709, 713, 83 L.Ed. 994.

In No. 624, the constitutional attack was directed to a state statute dealing with matters of local concern—the apportionment and districting for one county's governing board. The statute is not a statute of statewide application, but relates solely to the affairs of one county in the State. The fact that state officers were named as defendants cannot change the result.

It is said that there is enough similarity between this law and the laws governing other Alabama counties as to give this case a statewide interest. It is said that 29 counties having a city of consequence located within their borders have the same 'crazy quilt' of malapportionment to insure rural voters' control. It is said that 32 other counties provide for election of county board members at large but with a local residence requirement which insures rural control. It is said that six rural counties elect their governing bodies on an at-large basis with no local residence requirement. W...

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    ...or enjoin the enforcement of a local ordinance, as distinguished from statutes of state-wide application, Moody v. Flowers, 387 U.S. 97, 87 S.Ct. 1544, 18 L.Ed.2d 643 (1967), the court takes this opportunity to express its views on the constitutionality of the ordinance in the interest of j......
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    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — District of Columbia
    • March 12, 2020
    ...Court would have found itself to lack jurisdiction to consider the matter on direct appeal. See, e.g. , Moody v. Flowers , 387 U.S. 97, 104, 87 S.Ct. 1544, 18 L.Ed.2d 643 (1967) ("[A] three-judge court was improperly convened. Appeals should, therefore, have been taken to the respective Cou......
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    ...court only when the state statute which is sought to be enjoined is of a general and statewide application. Moody v. Flowers, 387 U.S. 97, 101, 87 S.Ct. 1544, 1547, 18 L.Ed.2d 643. 14. Article I, § 8, cl. 3, of the United States Constitution provides: "Congress shall have Power . . . To reg......
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  • Local Government Litigation: Some Pivotal Principles - R. Perry Sentell, Jr.
    • United States
    • Mercer University School of Law Mercer Law Reviews No. 55-1, September 2003
    • Invalid date
    ...1 Ga. L. Rev. 596 (1967), reprinted in R. Perry Sentell, Jr., Studies in Georgia Local Government Law (3d ed. 1977). 5. Moody v. Flowers, 387 U.S. 97, 104 (1967); Sailors v. Bd. of Educ., 387 U.S. 105, 111 (1967);Duschv. Davis, 387 U.S. 112, 114(1967). For treatment of these cases, see Sent......

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