National Ass'n of Metal Finishers v. E.P.A.

Decision Date24 October 1983
Docket Number81-1712,80-1008,81-1279,79-2443,81-1351,Nos. 79-2256,81-1210,81-1977,s. 79-2256
Citation719 F.2d 624
Parties, 13 Envtl. L. Rep. 21,042 NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF METAL FINISHERS, Electroplaters of York, Inc. and Pioneer Metal Finishing, Inc., Petitioners, v. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, Respondent. The INSTITUTE FOR INTERCONNECTING AND PACKAGING ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS, Petitioner, v. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, Respondent. FORD MOTOR COMPANY, INC., Petitioner, v. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY and Douglas M. Costle, Administrator, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Respondents, Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., Intervenor. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF METAL FINISHERS and Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, Petitioners, v. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, Respondent. GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY and Walter Barber, Acting Administrator, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Respondents, Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., Intervenor. NATURAL RESOURCES DEFENSE COUNCIL, INC., Petitioner, v. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, Douglas M. Costle, Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Respondents, Chemical Manufacturers Association, American Cyanamid Company, FMC Corporation, Union Carbide Corporation, Intervenors. UNITED STATES BREWERS ASSOCIATION, Petitioner, v. ADMINISTRATOR, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, and Environmental Protection Agency, Respondents, Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., Intervenor. MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS ASSOCIATION, American Paper Institute, National Forest Products Association, National Paint and Coatings Association, Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers Association, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., American Cyanamid Company, FMC Corporation, Hercules Incorporated, Shell Oil Company, and Union Carbide Corporation, Petitioners, v. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, Respondent, Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., Intervenor. ASSOCIATION OF METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE AGENCIES, Petitioner, v. UNITE
CourtU.S. Court of Appeals — Third Circuit

Theodore Garrett (argued), Constance J. Chatwood, Corinne A. Goldstein, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C., for National Ass'n of Metal Finishers, The Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, and Chemical Manufacturers Ass'n.

John M. Cannon (argued), Susan W. Wanat, Mid-American Legal Foundation, Chicago, Ill., for Chicago Ass'n of Commerce and Industry.

Robert J. Saner, II (argued), Lee C. White, White, Fine & Verville, Washington, D.C., for Ass'n of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies.

Turner T. Smith (argued), E. Milton Farley, III, William B. Ellis, Manning Gasch, Jr., Hunton & Williams, Richmond, Va., for Ford Motor Company and Rouge Steel.

Norman W. Bernstein (argued), Douglas E. Cutler, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Mich., for Ford Motor Company.

Louis E. Tosi (argued), William L. Patberg, Fuller & Henry, Toledo, Ohio, for General Motors.

James T. Harrington (argued), Dixie L. Laswell, Edward P. Kenney, Rooks, Pitts, Fullagar & Poust, Chicago, Ill., for Interlake, Inc., Republic Steel Corp., U.S. Steel Corp. and American Iron & Steel Institute.

R. Stuart Broom (argued), James W. Riddell, Dawson, Riddell, Fox, Holroyd, Wilson & Jackson, Washington, D.C., for U.S. Brewers Ass'n.

Alan S. Miller (argued), J. Taylor Banks, Frances Dubrowski, Washington, D.C., for NRDC.

Michael K. Glenn, Gary R. Feulner, Chadbourne, Parke, Whiteside & Wolff, Washington, D.C., for American Paper Institute and The National Forest Products Ass'n.

Donald T. Bliss, David T. Beddow, O'Melveny & Myers, Washington, D.C., and Mark R. Steinberg, O'Melveny & Myers, Los Angeles, Cal., for Metal Finishing Ass'n of Southern California.

Barry S. Neuman (argued), Michael Steinberg (argued), George E. Henderson, Lee R. Tyner, Carol E. Dinkins, Asst. Atty. Gen., Jose R. Allen, Acting Chief, Environmental Defense Section, Lloyd S. Guerci, Joan Z. Bernstein, Anthony Z. Roisman, Ellen Maldonado, James W. Moorman, Donald W. Stever, Michael W. Stein, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Michael Dworkin (argued), Michael Murchison, Ellen Siegler, Daniel J. Berry, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., for EPA; Of Counsel: Robert M. Perry, Associate Administrator and Gen. Counsel, Susan G. Lepow, Asst. Gen. Counsel Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., of counsel.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. BACKGROUND
A. The Statute
B. The Regulations

1. The General Pretreatment Regulations

2. the Categorical Electroplating Standards

C. The Consolidated Cases
D. The Standard of Review
II. THE GENERAL PRETREATMENT

REGULATION

A. The Definitions of "Interference" and "Pass

Through"

1. Interference

2. Pass Through

B. Definition of "New Source"
C. The Fundamentally Different Factor

Variance

1. Variances from Pretreatment Standards

2. Variances for Toxic Pollutants

D. The Removal Credits Provision

1. EPA approval and Authorization

2. Unworkability

E. The Combined Wastestream Formula

1. Process Categories

2. Moving Target

3. Attainability and Cost of Combined

Pretreatment

III. THE CATEGORICAL ELECTROPLATING

STANDARDS

A. Methodology of the Standards

1. The Regression Analysis

2. Lead and Cadmium

B. The Cost to Segregated Facilities

1. The NAMF Settlement Agreement

2. The Cost-Benefit Analysis

C. The Compliance Deadline for Integrated

Facilities

IV. CONCLUSION

TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS

                AISI                 American Iron and Steel Institute
                BAT                  Best Available Technology Economically
                                      Achievable
                BDT                  Best available Demonstrated Control
                                      Technology
                BPT                  Best Practicable Control Technology
                                      Currently Available
                CACI                 Chicago Association of Commerce and
                                      Industry
                CMA                  Chemical Manufacturing Association
                EPA                  Environmental Protection Agency
                FDF                  Fundamentally Different Factor
                GM                   General Motors Corp
                IIPEC                Institute for Interconnecting and
                                      Packaging Electronic Circuits
                J. App.              Joint Appendix
                Legis.  Hist.         Legislative History
                Me degrees           Regulated Metal in Influent
                MFASC                Metal Finishing Association of Southern
                                      California
                NAMF                 National Association of Metal Finishers
                NPDES                National Pollutant Discharge
                                      Elimination System
                NRDC                 Natural Resources Defense Council
                PM                   Precipitable Metals in Influent
                POTW                 Publicly Operated Treatment Works
                R. Add.              Addendum of Respondent
                TSS                  Total Suspended Solids
                TTO                  Total Toxic Organics
                USBA                 United States Brewers Association
                Xme                  Ratio of Me degrees to PM
                

Before: GIBBONS, HUNTER and BECKER, Circuit Judges.

OPINION OF THE COURT

JAMES HUNTER, III, Circuit Judge:

Section 307 of the Clean Water Act 1 directs the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") to promulgate regulations requiring industrial facilities to pretreat the pollutants that they discharge into public sewage treatment systems. The Administrator has promulgated both general pretreatment regulations 2 and regulations establishing categorical pretreatment standards for existing electroplating sources. 3 The petitioners in these consolidated cases seek review of the Administrator's actions in promulgating certain provisions of those regulations. Under section 509 of the Clean Water Act 4 we have jurisdiction to exercise a limited review of the Administrator's actions. We may overturn those actions only if they are arbitrary, capricious or otherwise contrary to law. 5 Under that standard of review, we find invalid certain provisions of the general pretreatment regulations. Because it is not for us to rewrite those provisions, we will remand them to the Administrator.

I. BACKGROUND
A. The Statute

In 1972 Congress amended the Federal Water Pollution Control Act ("the Act" or "the Clean Water Act"), 6 setting as a national goal the elimination,...

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