Papineau v. Parmley, Docket No. 05-1830-cv (L)

CourtU.S. Court of Appeals — Second Circuit
Writing for the CourtSotomayor
Citation465 F.3d 46
PartiesKent PAPINEAU, Plaintiff, Nedrick Ashton, Clay Rockwell, Abilene Rockwell, Houston Rockwell, Onenhaida Rockwell and Juanita Lewis, Plaintiffs-Counter-Defendants, Shawn Jones, Andrew Jones, Stonehorse Goeman, Marie Peters, Wealthy Bucktooth, individually and as guardian ad litem for Holly Lyons, Robert E. Bucktooth Jr., Cheryl Bucktooth, individually and as guardian ad litem for Nadine and Rob Bucktooth, Martha Bucktooth, Roberta Bucktooth, Jordan Bucktooth, Robert Bucktooth, Ronald Jones Sr., Ruth Jones, Debby Jones, Karen Jones, Nikki Jones, Karoniakata Jones, Tracy Kappelmeier, individually and as guardian ad litem for Adam Kappelmeier and Matthew Kappelmeier, Shirley Snyder, Andrea Potter, Samantha Thompson, Martha J. Skye, Steven Lee Skye, Cara Skye, Andrew Skye, Stormy Skye, Verna Montour, Sesiley R. Snyder, Alice Thompson, Minnie Garrow, Frances Dione, Wentawawi Dione, Joely Vandommelen, Daronhiokwas Horn, A'Anase Horn, Tekahawakwen Rice, Kahente Horn Miller, Kahentinetha Horn, Karonhioko'He Horn, Malcolm Hill, Kathy Melissa Smith, William Green III, Kevin Henhawk, Dyhyneyyks, Mona Logan, Gerald Logan, Anthony Kloch Jr., Frank Bistrovich, Brent Lyons, Brad Cooke, Janet Cornelius, Jina Jimerson, Duane Beckman, Chad Hill, Donna Hill, Steve Stacy, Dale Dione, Robin Wanatee, Joshua Wanatee, Ally M. Wanatee, Esther Sundown, Shelley George, Sheena Green, Shiela Fish, Garrett Bucktooth, Joe Stefanovich, Tyler Hemlock, Hayden Hemlock, Skroniati Stacy, Kakwirakeron, Tekarontake, Teyonienkwataseh, Daniel Moses, Andrew Moses, Ross John, Barry Buckshot, Seth Tarbell, Deirdre M. Tarbell and Andrew Buckshot, Plaintiffs-Counter-Defendants-Appellees-Cross-Appellants, v. James J. PARMLEY, George Beach, Pamela R. Morris, Dennis J. Blythe, John F. Ahern, Joseph W. Smith, Jeffrey D. Sergott, Michael S. Slade, James D. Moynihan, James J. Jecko, Robert Haumann, Mark E. Chaffee, Christopher J. Clark, Paul K. Kunzwiler, Douglas W. Shetler, Patrick M. Dipirro, Gregory Eberl, Gary A. Barlow, Mark E. Lepczyk, Martin Zubrzycko, Glenn Miner, Gary Darstein, Kevin Buttenschon, Chris A. Smith, Norman J. Mattice, John E. Wood, Thomas P. Connelly, Jerry Brown, Harry Schleiser, Norman Ashbarry, Peter S. Leadley, Martin J. Williams, Gloria L. Wood, David G. Bonner, Dennis J. Burgos, John P. Dougherty, David v. Dye, Daryl O. Free, James J. Greenwood, Andrew Halinski, Robert B. Heath, Robert H. Hovey Jr., Robert A. Jureller, Stephen P. Kealy, Troy D. Little, Edward J. Marecek, Ronald G. Morse, Paul M. Murray, Anthony Randazzo, Allen Riley, Frederick A. Smith and Steven B. Kruth, Defendants-Cross-Defendants-Appellants-Cross-Appellees, County of Onondaga, Onondaga County Sheriff's Department, Kevin Walsh, Onondaga County Sheriff, in his official and personal capacity, Defendants-Cross-Appellees, James W. McMahon, Superintendent of New York State Police, in his official and personal capacity, Town of Onondaga, and the following persons in their personal and official capacities as New York State Troopers, Allen v. Svitak Jr., Michael L. Delorenzo, James A. Armstrong, Mark Williams, Clifford A. Heaslip, Edward C. Fillingham, Kimberly A. Fillingham, Jeffrey D. Raub, Mark Bender, Peter Obrist, Eric D. Parsons, Robin Palmer, Michael Grandy, Thomas Irwin, George Mercado, Frank Jerome, James Rogers, Art Brocolli, John Doe, William M. Agan, William M. Ambler, Donald W. Barker, Mark A. Caporuscio, Michael G. Conroy, Peter A. Kalin, Matthew J. Navin, William J. Armstrong, George M. Atanasoff, David R. Barry, Peter J. Beratta, Steven M. Bourgeois, George W. Brownsell, Robert M. Burney, Rodney W. Campbell, Mary A. Clark, Mark Dembrow, Gerald J. Deruby Jr., Michael L. Downey, Gary W. Duncan, John Evans, John J. Fitzgerald, Robert Gardner, John E. Giddings, Douglas R. Gilmore, Gary L. Greene, Andrew A. Lucey, James Martin, James W. O'Brien, Gary Oelkers, Derrick A. O'Meara, Richard J. Sauer, Michael H. Scheibel, Gary S. Schultz, Timothy G. Siddall, Robert J. Simpson, Katherine Smith, Jay Strait, Michael R. Tinkler, Michael J. White, Donald M. Dattler, Thomas E. Elthorp, Harrison Greeney, Matthew A. Turrie, Dennis J. Cimbal and Kenneth Kotwas, Defendants-Cross-Defendants.
Decision Date04 October 2006
Docket NumberDocket No. 05-1830-cv (L),Docket No. 05-2035-cv (XAP).

Page 46

465 F.3d 46
Kent PAPINEAU, Plaintiff,
Nedrick Ashton, Clay Rockwell, Abilene Rockwell, Houston Rockwell, Onenhaida Rockwell and Juanita Lewis, Plaintiffs-Counter-Defendants,
Shawn Jones, Andrew Jones, Stonehorse Goeman, Marie Peters, Wealthy Bucktooth, individually and as guardian ad litem for Holly Lyons, Robert E. Bucktooth Jr., Cheryl Bucktooth, individually and as guardian ad litem for Nadine and Rob Bucktooth, Martha Bucktooth, Roberta Bucktooth, Jordan Bucktooth, Robert Bucktooth, Ronald Jones Sr., Ruth Jones, Debby Jones, Karen Jones, Nikki Jones, Karoniakata Jones, Tracy Kappelmeier, individually and as guardian ad litem for Adam Kappelmeier and Matthew Kappelmeier, Shirley Snyder, Andrea Potter, Samantha Thompson, Martha J. Skye, Steven Lee Skye, Cara Skye, Andrew Skye, Stormy Skye, Verna Montour, Sesiley R. Snyder, Alice Thompson, Minnie Garrow, Frances Dione, Wentawawi Dione, Joely Vandommelen, Daronhiokwas Horn, A'Anase Horn, Tekahawakwen Rice, Kahente Horn Miller, Kahentinetha Horn, Karonhioko'He Horn, Malcolm Hill, Kathy Melissa Smith, William Green III, Kevin Henhawk, Dyhyneyyks, Mona Logan, Gerald Logan,

Page 47

Anthony Kloch Jr., Frank Bistrovich, Brent Lyons, Brad Cooke, Janet Cornelius, Jina Jimerson, Duane Beckman, Chad Hill, Donna Hill, Steve Stacy, Dale Dione, Robin Wanatee, Joshua Wanatee, Ally M. Wanatee, Esther Sundown, Shelley George, Sheena Green, Shiela Fish, Garrett Bucktooth, Joe Stefanovich, Tyler Hemlock, Hayden Hemlock, Skroniati Stacy, Kakwirakeron, Tekarontake, Teyonienkwataseh, Daniel Moses, Andrew Moses, Ross John, Barry Buckshot, Seth Tarbell, Deirdre M. Tarbell and Andrew Buckshot, Plaintiffs-Counter-Defendants-Appellees-Cross-Appellants,
v.
James J. PARMLEY, George Beach, Pamela R. Morris, Dennis J. Blythe, John F. Ahern, Joseph W. Smith, Jeffrey D. Sergott, Michael S. Slade, James D. Moynihan, James J. Jecko, Robert Haumann, Mark E. Chaffee, Christopher J. Clark, Paul K. Kunzwiler, Douglas W. Shetler, Patrick M. Dipirro, Gregory Eberl, Gary A. Barlow, Mark E. Lepczyk, Martin Zubrzycko, Glenn Miner, Gary Darstein, Kevin Buttenschon, Chris A. Smith, Norman J. Mattice, John E. Wood, Thomas P. Connelly, Jerry Brown, Harry Schleiser, Norman Ashbarry, Peter S. Leadley, Martin J. Williams, Gloria L. Wood, David G. Bonner, Dennis J. Burgos, John P. Dougherty, David v. Dye, Daryl O. Free, James J. Greenwood, Andrew Halinski, Robert B. Heath, Robert H. Hovey Jr., Robert A. Jureller, Stephen P. Kealy, Troy D. Little, Edward J. Marecek, Ronald G. Morse, Paul M. Murray, Anthony Randazzo, Allen Riley, Frederick A. Smith and Steven B. Kruth, Defendants-Cross-Defendants-Appellants-Cross-Appellees,
County of Onondaga, Onondaga County Sheriff's Department, Kevin Walsh, Onondaga County Sheriff, in his official and personal capacity, Defendants-Cross-Appellees,
James W. McMahon, Superintendent of New York State Police, in his official and personal capacity, Town of Onondaga, and the following persons in their personal and official capacities as New York State Troopers, Allen v. Svitak Jr., Michael L. Delorenzo, James A. Armstrong, Mark Williams, Clifford A. Heaslip, Edward C. Fillingham, Kimberly A. Fillingham, Jeffrey D. Raub, Mark Bender, Peter Obrist, Eric D. Parsons, Robin Palmer, Michael Grandy, Thomas Irwin, George Mercado, Frank Jerome, James Rogers, Art Brocolli, John Doe, William M. Agan, William M. Ambler, Donald W. Barker, Mark A. Caporuscio, Michael G. Conroy, Peter A. Kalin, Matthew J. Navin, William J. Armstrong, George M. Atanasoff, David R. Barry, Peter J. Beratta, Steven M. Bourgeois, George W. Brownsell, Robert M. Burney, Rodney W. Campbell, Mary A. Clark, Mark Dembrow, Gerald J. Deruby Jr., Michael L. Downey, Gary W. Duncan, John Evans, John J. Fitzgerald, Robert Gardner, John E. Giddings, Douglas R. Gilmore, Gary L. Greene, Andrew A. Lucey, James Martin, James W. O'Brien, Gary Oelkers, Derrick A. O'Meara, Richard J. Sauer, Michael H. Scheibel, Gary S. Schultz, Timothy G. Siddall, Robert J. Simpson, Katherine Smith, Jay Strait, Michael R. Tinkler, Michael J. White, Donald M. Dattler, Thomas E. Elthorp, Harrison Greeney, Matthew A. Turrie, Dennis J. Cimbal and Kenneth Kotwas, Defendants-Cross-Defendants.

Page 48

Docket No. 05-1830-cv (L)
Docket No. 05-2035-cv (XAP).
United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit.
Argued: June 5, 2006.
Decided: October 4, 2006.

Page 49

COPYRIGHT MATERIAL OMITTED

Page 50

COPYRIGHT MATERIAL OMITTED

Page 51

Frank Brady, Assistant Solicitor General (Eliot Spitzer, Attorney General of the State of New York, Daniel Smirlock, Peter H. Schiff, Nancy A. Spiegel, on the brief), Albany, NY, for defendants-cross-defendants-appellants-cross-appellees.

Jodi Peikin, Morvillo, Abramowitz, Grand, Iason & Silberberg, P.C. (Robert J. Anello, on the brief), New York, NY, for plaintiffs-counter-defendants-appellees-cross-appellants.

Anthony P. Rivizzigno, County Attorney (Carol L. Rhinehart, on the brief), Syracuse, NY, submitted brief for defendants-cross-appellees.

Before WALKER, Chief Judge, NEWMAN and SOTOMAYOR, Circuit Judges.

SOTOMAYOR, Circuit Judge.


Individual state defendants-cross-defendants-appellants-cross-appellees James J. Parmley et al. (the "defendants") appeal from the March 28, 2005 order of the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York (Scullin, C.J.), Jones v. McMahon, No. 98-CV-374, 2005 WL 928667 (N.D.N.Y. Mar. 28, 2005), which denied defendants' summary judgment motion for qualified immunity on plaintiffs-counter-defendants-appellees-cross-appellants Andrew Jones et al.'s (the "plaintiffs") claims of First and Fourth Amendment violations stemming from defendants' alleged misconduct in dispersing plaintiffs' demonstration in May 1997. Specifically, defendants contend the district court's denial was flawed because (1) even under plaintiffs' facts, it was objectively reasonable as a matter of law for defendants to believe that the demonstration presented a "clear and present danger" after several protesters had entered the roadway of an interstate freeway and (2) the court misconstrued our precedent in Atkins v. New York City, 143 F.3d 100 (2d Cir.1998), in holding that any force used in connection with an arrest that lacked probable cause is by definition excessive. Defendants also appeal the district court's refusal to recognize their assertion of qualified immunity on plaintiffs' state-law claims.

Plaintiffs cross-appeal the district court's March 28 and April 20, 2005 rulings that granted summary judgment to all defendants on some of their claims and to defendants New York State Police ("NYSP") Superintendent James W. McMahon and Onondaga County Sheriff Kevin Walsh on all claims; granted sua sponte summary judgment on all claims to the County of Onondaga, the Onondaga County Sheriff's Department ("Sheriff's Department"), and NYSP troopers Mark Bender and Peter Obrist; and denied plaintiffs Marissa Horton and Verna Montour's motion for reconsideration of the dismissal of their excessive force claims.

For the reasons that follow, we AFFIRM the district court's decision denying qualified immunity to defendants, and DISMISS plaintiffs' cross-appeal for lack of jurisdiction because it presents no issues that are "inextricably intertwined" with defendants' appeal.

BACKGROUND

On October 7, 2005, this Court denied plaintiffs' motion to dismiss this appeal, which had contended that the order appealed from was a non-final denial of a motion for summary judgment. We held

Page 52

that although the district court's rejection of the defendants' motion for summary judgment on qualified immunity grounds was based on the court's determination that there were genuine issues of material fact still to be resolved, this appeal could go forward because defendants had stipulated to plaintiffs' facts for the purposes of this appeal. See Salim v. Proulx, 93 F.3d 86, 89 (2d Cir.1996) (holding that, where a district court rejects a defense of qualified immunity based on disputed issues of fact, "an appeal is available where the defendant accepts, for purposes of the appeal, the facts as alleged by the plaintiff"). Thus, for the purposes of this appeal, we accept the facts as alleged by the plaintiffs.

I. The Facts

In May 1997, plaintiffs, several dozen members of the Onondaga Nation and their supporters, organized a protest to express their opposition to an agreement between the chiefs of the Onondaga Nation and the State of New York that would permit the State to tax tobacco products sold to non-Native Americans on land belonging to the Onondagas. The protest was held on private property belonging to plaintiff Andrew Jones, an Onondaga who opposed the agreement. Jones's property includes the paved portion of Interstate 81 ("I-81" or the "Interstate"), which the State has a non-exclusive right to use under a limited easement granted to the Department of Public Works, as well as acreage adjacent to the highway on which his house and yard are located.

The protest began on May 8, 1997, with the lighting of a ceremonial fire. Shortly thereafter, law enforcement officers from the Sheriff's Department visited the protest and allowed it to proceed. The protest continued, peacefully and with the consent of the Sheriff's Department, for ten days; the protesters were at all times orderly and peaceful and did not disturb nor harass neighbors, motorists or passersby who witnessed the demonstration. On May 18, the protesters circulated a flyer announcing that a "media event" would be held that day to protest the tobacco agreement. The Sheriff's Department became aware of these plans, and heard rumors that the protesters planned to block I-81 temporarily to draw attention to their cause.

The May 18 gathering was attended by men, women and children of all ages. At approximately 1:45 p.m., a small group of Onondaga protesters, possibly including some plaintiffs,1 briefly entered the I-81 roadway to distribute...

To continue reading

Request your trial
451 practice notes
  • Evans v. Solomon, No. 06-CV-3284 (SLT)(LB).
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Court (Eastern District of New York)
    • January 19, 2010
    ...detention or arrest of an individual derives from the Fourth Amendment right to be secure from unreasonable seizures. Jones v. Parmley, 465 F.3d 46, 61 (2d Cir. 2006). When determining whether police officers have employed excessive force, the Supreme Court has instructed that courts should......
  • Gonzalez v. City of N.Y., Docket No. 11–5403.
    • United States
    • U.S. Court of Appeals — Second Circuit
    • August 28, 2013
    ...on state-law claims except where the officials' actions are undertaken in bad faith or without a reasonable basis.” Jones v. Parmley, 465 F.3d 46, 63 (2d Cir.2006); see also Blouin ex rel. Estate of Pouliot v. Spitzer, 356 F.3d 348, 364 (2d Cir.2004). 5.Cantor, the case relied upon in Hall ......
  • Murtaugh v. New York, 5:08-CV-1168
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Court of Northern District of New York
    • August 16, 2011
    ...on state-law claims except where the officials' actions are undertaken in bad faith or without a reasonable basis." Jones v. Parmley, 465 F.3d 46, 63 (2d Cir. 2006) (agreeing with Plaintiffs that "defendants' defense . . . necessarily depend[s] onPage 62the same 'reasonableness' at issue wi......
  • Gaston v. City of N.Y., No. 11 Civ. 4750(AJP).
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. Southern District of New York
    • April 2, 2012
    ...e.g., Stein v. Barthelson, 419 Fed.Appx. 67, 69 (2d Cir.2011); Wilson v. Aquino, 233 Fed.Appx. 73, 76 (2d Cir.2007); Jones v. Parmley, 465 F.3d 46, 55 (2d Cir.2006); Holeman v. City of New London, 425 F.3d 184, 189 (2d Cir.2005); Rogers v. City of Amsterdam, 303 F.3d 155, 158 (2d Cir.2002).......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
453 cases
  • Evans v. Solomon, No. 06-CV-3284 (SLT)(LB).
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Court (Eastern District of New York)
    • January 19, 2010
    ...detention or arrest of an individual derives from the Fourth Amendment right to be secure from unreasonable seizures. Jones v. Parmley, 465 F.3d 46, 61 (2d Cir. 2006). When determining whether police officers have employed excessive force, the Supreme Court has instructed that courts should......
  • Gonzalez v. City of N.Y., Docket No. 11–5403.
    • United States
    • U.S. Court of Appeals — Second Circuit
    • August 28, 2013
    ...on state-law claims except where the officials' actions are undertaken in bad faith or without a reasonable basis.” Jones v. Parmley, 465 F.3d 46, 63 (2d Cir.2006); see also Blouin ex rel. Estate of Pouliot v. Spitzer, 356 F.3d 348, 364 (2d Cir.2004). 5.Cantor, the case relied upon in Hall ......
  • Murtaugh v. New York, 5:08-CV-1168
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Court of Northern District of New York
    • August 16, 2011
    ...on state-law claims except where the officials' actions are undertaken in bad faith or without a reasonable basis." Jones v. Parmley, 465 F.3d 46, 63 (2d Cir. 2006) (agreeing with Plaintiffs that "defendants' defense . . . necessarily depend[s] onPage 62the same 'reasonableness' at issue wi......
  • Gaston v. City of N.Y., No. 11 Civ. 4750(AJP).
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. Southern District of New York
    • April 2, 2012
    ...e.g., Stein v. Barthelson, 419 Fed.Appx. 67, 69 (2d Cir.2011); Wilson v. Aquino, 233 Fed.Appx. 73, 76 (2d Cir.2007); Jones v. Parmley, 465 F.3d 46, 55 (2d Cir.2006); Holeman v. City of New London, 425 F.3d 184, 189 (2d Cir.2005); Rogers v. City of Amsterdam, 303 F.3d 155, 158 (2d Cir.2002).......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
1 books & journal articles

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT