People v. Jaramillo, Cr. 18624

CourtUnited States State Supreme Court (California)
Writing for the CourtWRIGHT
Citation129 Cal.Rptr. 306,16 Cal.3d 752,548 P.2d 706
Decision Date26 April 1976
Docket NumberCr. 18624
Parties, 548 P.2d 706 The PEOPLE, Plaintiff and Respondent, v. Anthony Lopez JARAMILLO, Defendant and Appellant.

Page 306

129 Cal.Rptr. 306
16 Cal.3d 752, 548 P.2d 706
The PEOPLE, Plaintiff and Respondent,
v.
Anthony Lopez JARAMILLO, Defendant and Appellant.
Cr. 18624.
Supreme Court of California,
In Bank.
April 26, 1976.

[16 Cal.3d 754] Joel M. Kriger, San Diego, under appointment by the Supreme Court, for defendant and appellant.

Evelle J. Younger, Atty. Gen., Jack R. Winkler, Chief Asst. Atty. Gen., Daniel J. Kremer, Asst. Atty. Gen., Alan S. Meth and Patricia D. Benke, Deputy Attys. Gen., for plaintiff and respondent.

Page 307

[548 P.2d 707] WRIGHT, Chief Justice.

Anthony Lopez Jaramillo appeals from a judgment upon jury convictions of the unlawful driving or taking of a vehicle (Veh.Code, § 10851) and receiving stolen property (Pen.Code, § 496, subd. 1). The question presented is whether, in light of the broad scope of conduct proscribed by Vehicle Code section 10851, defendant can properly be convicted of violating both that section and Penal Code section 496. We conclude for reasons which follow that an accused can be convicted of both violations Only if his conviction of the Vehicle Code section is predicated on conduct not constituting a theft of the vehicle involved, and we reverse the judgment in the manner hereinafter indicated.

During the night of August 27, 1972, a green Pontiac convertible belonging to Larry and Ramona Ramsey was stolen from a location near their living quarters in San Diego. On September 8, 1972, a citizen in Van Nuys observed defendant as he emerged from the driveway of an apartment building adjoining the home of the witness. Defendant [16 Cal.3d 755] carried a large object which appeared to be a five-gallon water bottle and proceeded across the street to the yard of another residence. The witness telephoned police and continued to observe defendant's activities. When a patrol car appeared defendant hid in some shrubbery until it passed by. He then emerged from the bushes, talked briefly with a man who was sitting in one of two vehicles parked along the curb and then proceeded to the second vehicle where he opened the trunk, placed something therein and entered the vehicle.

William P. Knight, a Van Nuys police officer, responded to a call to investigate a possible burglary in progress at the scene of defendant's activities. As Knight approached two parked vehicles he directed the beam of his flashlight into one of the automobiles and observed defendant lying across a metal-topped console as if he were attempting to hide beneath the dashboard. He appeared to be feigning sleep. Knight observed in the back seat a five-gallon water bottle filled with gasoline, a two-gallon bucket partially filled with gasoline and a section of garden hose. A radio check of the vehicle's license plate revealed it to be the Ramsey's stolen car. Taped inside the right front side of the windshield of the stolen vehicle was a temproary military base pass with defendant's name on it. A gas cap fitting the tank of the stolen car was found in the defendant's back pocket. The glove box wherein the Ramseys had locked their car keys prior to the theft had been pried open.

We note preliminarily that there are three separate statutory measures which provide punishment for the taking or use of an automobile without the owner's consent. Penal Code section 499b, commonly referred to as the 'misdemeanor joy-riding statute,' provides in pertinent part: 'Any person who shall, without permission of the owner thereof, take any automobile . . . or other vehicle . . . for the purpose of temporarily using or operating the same, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. . . .' Penal Code section 487, subdivision 3, commonly referred to as 'grand theft--auto,' provides that every person who feloniously steals, takes, carries, or drives away the automobile of another is guilty of grand theft. (See also Pen.Code, §§ 484, 486.) Vehicle Code section 10851 might be deemed to proscribe conduct which falls between that proscribed by the Penal Code sections. It provides in part that '(a)ny person who drives or takes a vehicle not his own, without the consent of the owner thereof and with the intent either permanently or temporarily to deprive the owner thereof of his title to or possession of the vehicle, whether with or without intent to steal the same . . . is guilty of a public offense. . . .'

[16 Cal.3d 756] '(T)he physical conduct prohibited by the three enactments is substantially the same, but . . . there purports to be a distinction as to the intent with which the act is done in each instance. It may be presumed that the Legislature intended by

Page 308

[548 P.2d 708] these sections to deal with problems which are properly distinguishable. . . . The distinction . . . is admittedly a subtle one, and would present a rather difficult problem if it were required that a court instruct a jury as to the distinction in a given situation. It may well be that the Legislature intended to leave the decision as to which section should be invoked in a particular case to the prosecutor.' (People v. Thomas (1962) 58 Cal.2d 121, 125--126, 23 Cal.Rptr. 161, 162, 373 P.2d 97, 98.)

In the instant case the prosecutor elected to charge defendant by information with three violations, to wit: violations of Penal Code section 487, subdivision 3, of Vehicle Code section 10851 and of Penal Code section 496, subdivision 1, receiving stolen property. 1 In submitting the question of the taking of the vehicle to the jury the court instructed in terms of CALJIC No. 14.35 (Pen.Code, § 487, subd. 3), 2 CALJIC No. 14.36 (Veh.Code, § 10851), 3 and CALJIC No. 14.37. 4 The latter instruction purports to distinguish the two 'taking' offenses. It further directs that an accused may not be convicted of both offenses and in case of a reasonable doubt as to which of the two offenses the accused is guilty when it is concluded that he is guilty of at least one of the offenses, he must be found in violation of Vehicle Code section 10851. The jury was Not instructed that defendant could not be properly convicted of both the theft or the taking of a vehicle and receiving that vehicle as stolen property. As indicated, the jury found defendant guilty of a violation of Vehicle Code

Page 309

[548 P.2d 709] section 10851 and of receiving stolen property.

[16 Cal.3d 757] In what appears to have been an attempt to avoid the proscription against double punishment, defendant was sentenced on the receiving conviction as the greater of the two offenses of which he was convicted, with the sentence on the taking conviction temporarily stayed, the stay to become permanent upon the successful completion of the term of the sentence for the receiving conviction. 5 This treatment overlooks, however, the basic problem of whether defendant may properly be Convicted of both charges, it being a fundamental principle that one may not be convicted of stealing and of receiving the same property. (E.g., People v. Briggs (1971) 19 Cal.App.3d 1034, 1036, 97 Cal.Rptr....

To continue reading

Request your trial
172 practice notes
  • People v. Price
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court (California)
    • December 30, 1991
    ...certain limited exceptions, a defendant may not be convicted of stealing and receiving the same property. (People v. Jaramillo (1976) 16 Cal.3d 752, 757, 129 Cal.Rptr. 306, 548 P.2d 706.) This does not mean, however, that when the prosecution has charged only receiving, it must establish by......
  • People v. Barrick, Cr. 22389
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court (California)
    • December 10, 1982
    ...or taking a vehicle. The acts constituting driving a vehicle and taking a vehicle are separate and distinct. (People v. Jaramillo [1976] 16 Cal.3d 752, 759, fn. 6, 129 Cal.Rptr. 306, 548 P.2d 706; see also People v. Donnell [1975] 52 Cal.App.3d 762, 769, 125 Cal.Rptr. 310.) As we have seen,......
  • Garcia v. State, No. 88-205
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court of Wyoming
    • July 13, 1989
    ...Leon v. State, 21 Ariz. 418, 189 P. 433 (1920); People v. Jackson, 78 Cal.App.3d 533, 144 Cal.Rptr. 199 (1978); People v. Jaramillo, 16 Cal.3d 752, 129 Cal.Rptr. 306, 548 P.2d 706 (1976); People v. Tatum, 209 Cal.App.2d 179, 25 Cal.Rptr. 832 (1962); Duncan v. State, 503 So.2d 443 (Fla.App.1......
  • People v. Morse
    • United States
    • California Court of Appeals
    • January 9, 1992
    ...1172-1173, 279 Cal.Rptr. 437; People v. Riederer (1990) 217 Cal.App.3d 829, 837, 266 Cal.Rptr. 355; see also People v. Jaramillo (1976) 16 Cal.3d 752, 760-761, 129 Cal.Rptr. 306, 548 P.2d LILLIE, P.J., concurs. JOHNSON, Associate Justice, concurring and dissenting. I concur with the majorit......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
172 cases
  • People v. Price
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court (California)
    • December 30, 1991
    ...certain limited exceptions, a defendant may not be convicted of stealing and receiving the same property. (People v. Jaramillo (1976) 16 Cal.3d 752, 757, 129 Cal.Rptr. 306, 548 P.2d 706.) This does not mean, however, that when the prosecution has charged only receiving, it must establish by......
  • People v. Barrick, Cr. 22389
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court (California)
    • December 10, 1982
    ...or taking a vehicle. The acts constituting driving a vehicle and taking a vehicle are separate and distinct. (People v. Jaramillo [1976] 16 Cal.3d 752, 759, fn. 6, 129 Cal.Rptr. 306, 548 P.2d 706; see also People v. Donnell [1975] 52 Cal.App.3d 762, 769, 125 Cal.Rptr. 310.) As we have seen,......
  • Garcia v. State, No. 88-205
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court of Wyoming
    • July 13, 1989
    ...Leon v. State, 21 Ariz. 418, 189 P. 433 (1920); People v. Jackson, 78 Cal.App.3d 533, 144 Cal.Rptr. 199 (1978); People v. Jaramillo, 16 Cal.3d 752, 129 Cal.Rptr. 306, 548 P.2d 706 (1976); People v. Tatum, 209 Cal.App.2d 179, 25 Cal.Rptr. 832 (1962); Duncan v. State, 503 So.2d 443 (Fla.App.1......
  • People v. Morse
    • United States
    • California Court of Appeals
    • January 9, 1992
    ...1172-1173, 279 Cal.Rptr. 437; People v. Riederer (1990) 217 Cal.App.3d 829, 837, 266 Cal.Rptr. 355; see also People v. Jaramillo (1976) 16 Cal.3d 752, 760-761, 129 Cal.Rptr. 306, 548 P.2d LILLIE, P.J., concurs. JOHNSON, Associate Justice, concurring and dissenting. I concur with the majorit......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT