Pinney v. Nokia, Inc., No. 03-1433.

CourtUnited States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (4th Circuit)
Writing for the CourtMichael
Citation402 F.3d 430
PartiesJ. Douglas PINNEY, M.D.; Patricia S. Colonell, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated; Francis J. Farina, individually and on behalf of all those similarly situated; Garrett J. Naquin; Ronald Leblanc; Judith A. Kaufman; Asher Rubenstein; Crystall Gilliam; Dimitri Mack; Riedy Gimpelson, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated; Sarah Dahlgren, on behalf of herself and all others similarly situated; Linda Barrell; Blayne Minogue; Brian Lane Barrett; Diana Barrett; David C. Keller; Marsha L. Keller, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. NOKIA, INCORPORATED, a/k/a Nokia Mobile Phones, Incorporated, a/k/a Nokia Corporation; NEC America, Incorporated; Ericsson Wireless Communications, Incorporated, a/k/a Ericsson, Incorporated; Sprint PCS Limited Partnership, a/k/a Sprint PCS, a/k/a Sprint Spectrum, LLP, a/k/a Sprint Spectrum; Audiovox Communications Corporation; Nextel Communications, Incorporated, a/k/a Nextel Communications of the Mid-Atlantic, Incorporated, a/k/a Nextel Partners, Incorporated, a/k/a Nextel; Matsushita Corporation of America, a/k/a Panasonic Corporation; Philips Electronics North America Corporation; Qualcomm Incorporated; Samsung Electronics America, Incorporated, a/k/a Samsung Electronics; Sanyo North America, Incorporated, a/k/a Sanyo Business Systems Corporation, a/k/a Sanyo North America Group; Sony Electronics, Incorporated; AT & T Corporation, a/k/a AT & T; Verizon Maryland, Incorporated, a/k/a Verizon, a/k/a Verizon Wireless, formerly known as Bell Atlantic Maryland, Incorporated; Verizon Communications, Incorporated, formerly known as Bell Atlantic Corporation; Verizon Wireless, a/k/a Nynex, a/k/a Bell Atlantic Nynex, a/k/a Bell Atlantic Mobile, Incorporated, a/k/a Bell Atlantic Nynex Mobile; Cellco Partnership, d/b/a Verizon Wireless, formerly known as Bell Atlantic Nynex Mobile, formerly known as Bell Atlantic Mobile; Cingular Wireless, LLC, formerly known as BellSouth Mobility, Incorporated, a/k/a Southwestern Bell Wireless, formerly known as Southwestern Bell Mobile Systems, Incorporated; Cingular Wireless, a/k/a Washington/Baltimore Cellular Limited Partnership; SBC Communications, Incorporated; Cellular One Group, a/k/a Cellular One; Voicestream Wireless Corporation; C.E.I., Incorporated, a/k/a Communications Electronics, a/k/a Communications Electronics, Incorporated; Baltimore Business Communications, Incorporated; Comcast/Metrophone; Radiofone; Powertel, Incorporated; Powertel PCS, Incorporated; Powertel/Atlanta, Incorporated; Mitsubishi Wireless Communications, Incorporated; Motorola, Incorporated, a Delaware corporation; Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association, a District of Columbia corporation; Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association; Telecommunications Industry Association, a/k/a TIA; Nextel Partners Operating Corporation, Defendants-Appellees, and Westinghouse Communications; Southern Telecom, Incorporated, a/k/a Southern Linc; John Does 1-100; LGIC Corporation; Panasonic Corporation; Samsung SDI Company; Sanyo Corporation; Sony Corporation; Planet Cellular Communications, Incorporated; Visitor Cellular L.L.C.; Bell South Mobility; Kyocera Wireless Corporation; MCI Worldcom Communications, Incorporated; U.S. West Wireless, L.L.C., A Colorado corporation; U.S. West Communications, Incorporated, a Colorado corporation; GTE Mobilnet of San Diego, Incorporated, a Delaware corporation; GTE Wireless San Diego, LLC, a California Limited Liability; Cellular Carriers Association of California, a California corporation; AB Cellular Holdings, LLC, d/b/a LA Cellular, d/b/a Los Angeles Cellular Telephone Company, Defendants.
Docket NumberNo. 03-1433.
Decision Date16 March 2005
402 F.3d 430
J. Douglas PINNEY, M.D.; Patricia S. Colonell, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated; Francis J. Farina, individually and on behalf of all those similarly situated; Garrett J. Naquin; Ronald Leblanc; Judith A. Kaufman; Asher Rubenstein; Crystall Gilliam; Dimitri Mack; Riedy Gimpelson, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated; Sarah Dahlgren, on behalf of herself and all others similarly situated; Linda Barrell; Blayne Minogue; Brian Lane Barrett; Diana Barrett; David C. Keller; Marsha L. Keller, Plaintiffs-Appellants,
v.
NOKIA, INCORPORATED, a/k/a Nokia Mobile Phones, Incorporated, a/k/a Nokia Corporation; NEC America, Incorporated; Ericsson Wireless Communications, Incorporated, a/k/a Ericsson, Incorporated; Sprint PCS Limited Partnership, a/k/a Sprint PCS, a/k/a Sprint Spectrum, LLP, a/k/a Sprint Spectrum; Audiovox Communications Corporation; Nextel Communications, Incorporated, a/k/a Nextel Communications of the Mid-Atlantic, Incorporated, a/k/a Nextel Partners, Incorporated, a/k/a Nextel; Matsushita Corporation of America, a/k/a Panasonic Corporation; Philips Electronics North America Corporation; Qualcomm Incorporated; Samsung Electronics America, Incorporated, a/k/a Samsung Electronics; Sanyo North America, Incorporated, a/k/a Sanyo Business Systems Corporation, a/k/a Sanyo North America Group; Sony Electronics, Incorporated; AT & T Corporation, a/k/a AT & T; Verizon Maryland, Incorporated, a/k/a Verizon, a/k/a Verizon Wireless, formerly known as Bell Atlantic Maryland, Incorporated; Verizon Communications, Incorporated, formerly known as Bell Atlantic Corporation; Verizon Wireless, a/k/a Nynex, a/k/a Bell Atlantic Nynex, a/k/a Bell Atlantic Mobile, Incorporated, a/k/a Bell Atlantic Nynex

Page 431

Mobile; Cellco Partnership, d/b/a Verizon Wireless, formerly known as Bell Atlantic Nynex Mobile, formerly known as Bell Atlantic Mobile; Cingular Wireless, LLC, formerly known as BellSouth Mobility, Incorporated, a/k/a Southwestern Bell Wireless, formerly known as Southwestern Bell Mobile Systems, Incorporated; Cingular Wireless, a/k/a Washington/Baltimore Cellular Limited Partnership; SBC Communications, Incorporated; Cellular One Group, a/k/a Cellular One; Voicestream Wireless Corporation; C.E.I., Incorporated, a/k/a Communications Electronics, a/k/a Communications Electronics, Incorporated; Baltimore Business Communications, Incorporated; Comcast/Metrophone; Radiofone; Powertel, Incorporated; Powertel PCS, Incorporated; Powertel/Atlanta, Incorporated; Mitsubishi Wireless Communications, Incorporated; Motorola, Incorporated, a Delaware corporation; Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association, a District of Columbia corporation; Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association; Telecommunications Industry Association, a/k/a TIA; Nextel Partners Operating Corporation, Defendants-Appellees, and
Westinghouse Communications; Southern Telecom, Incorporated, a/k/a Southern Linc; John Does 1-100; LGIC Corporation; Panasonic Corporation; Samsung SDI Company; Sanyo Corporation; Sony Corporation; Planet Cellular Communications, Incorporated; Visitor Cellular L.L.C.; Bell South Mobility; Kyocera Wireless Corporation; MCI Worldcom Communications, Incorporated; U.S. West Wireless, L.L.C., A Colorado corporation; U.S. West Communications, Incorporated, a Colorado corporation; GTE Mobilnet of San Diego, Incorporated, a Delaware corporation; GTE Wireless San Diego, LLC, a California Limited Liability; Cellular Carriers Association of California, a California corporation; AB Cellular Holdings, LLC, d/b/a LA Cellular, d/b/a Los Angeles Cellular Telephone Company, Defendants.
No. 03-1433.
United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit.
Argued: October 1, 2004.
Decided: March 16, 2005.

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ARGUED: Michael R. Allweiss, Lowe, Stein, Hoffman, Allweiss & Hauver, L.L.P., New Orleans, Louisiana, for Appellants. Kenneth Winston Starr, Kirkland & Ellis, L.L.P., Washington, D.C., for Appellees. ON BRIEF: H. Russell Smouse, John C.M. Angelos, Glenn E. Mintzer,

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Law Offices of Peter G. Angelos, P.C., Baltimore, Maryland; H. Thomas Howell, Howell & Gately, Baltimore, Maryland, for Appellants. Garrett B. Johnson, Terrence J. Dee, Michael B. Slade, Kirkland & Ellis, L.L.P., Chicago, Illinois, for Motorola, Inc. Seamus C. Duffy, Mary Catherine Roper, Drinker, Biddle & Reath, L.L.P., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for Cingular Wireless, Inc., SBC Communications, Inc. Mark F. Horning, Thomas M. Barba, Steptoe & Johnson, Washington, D.C., for AT & T Corp., AT & T Wireless PCS, LLC and AT & T Wireless Services, Inc. John H. Beisner, Brian P. Brooks, O'Melveny & Meyers, L.L.P., Washington, D.C., for Verizon Wireless, Cellco Partnership. Paul F. Strain, Venable, Baetjer and Howard, L.L.P., Baltimore, Maryland; M. King Hill, III, Venable, Baetjer and Howard, L.L.P., Towson, Maryland; Jane Fugate Thorpe, Scott A. Elder, Alston & Bird, L.L.P., Atlanta, Georgia, for Cellco Partnership formerly d/b/a Bell Atlantic Mobile and Bell Atlantic Nynex Mobile d/b/a Verizon Wireless, Verizon Maryland, Inc. a/k/a Verizon Wireless, a/k/a Verizon, f/k/a Bell Atlantic-Maryland, Inc., Verizon Communications, Inc., f/k/a Bell Atlantic Corporation, Verizon Wireless, a/k/a Bell Atlantic Nynex, a/k/a Nynex, a/k/a Bell Atlantic Mobile, Inc. f/k/a Bell Atlantic Nynex Mobile, Inc. Thomas Watson, Curtis Renner, Watson & Renner, Washington, D.C., for Cingular Wireless, L.L.C. Michael Esher Yaggy, Jeffrey M. Yeatman, Piper Rudnick, L.L.P., Baltimore, Maryland, for Motorola, Inc. Steven M. Laduzinsky, Scott A. Hanfling, Kane, Laduzinsky & Mendoza, Ltd., Chicago, Illinois; Robert B. Green, Irwin, Green & Dexter, L.L.P., Towson, Maryland, for Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association. Michael H. O'Brien, Jason P. Sultzer, Wilson, Elser, Moskowitz, Edelman & Dicker, White Plains, New York; Laura N. Steel, Wilson, Elser, Moskowitz, Edelman & Dicker, Washington, D.C.; John B. Isbister, Harold M. Walter, Tydings & Rosenberg, L.L.P., Baltimore, Maryland, for Samsung Electronics America, Inc., a/k/a Samsung Electronics. Paul S. Schleifman, Shook, Hardy & Bacon, L.L.P., Washington, D.C.; J. Stan Sexton, Michael D. Moeller, Shook, Hardy & Bacon, L.L.P., Kansas City, Missouri, for Sprint PCS Limited Partnership, a/k/a Sprint Spectrum; Sprint Spectrum, L.L.C., d/b/a Sprint PCS. Charles P. Goodell, James A. Frederick, Goodell, Devries, Leech & Dann, Baltimore, Maryland, for North America, Inc. a/k/a Sanyo North America Group, Sanyo Corporation, Sanyo Business Systems Corporation. Steven M. Zager, Lance Lackey, Robert Pemberton, Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P., Houston, Texas; Paul F. Walter, Tydings and Rosenberg, L.L.P., Baltimore, Maryland, for Nokia, Inc., a/k/a Nokia Mobile Phones, Inc., and Nokia Corporation. Ray M. Aragon, Raymond B. Biagini, McKenna, Long & Aldridge, L.L.P., Washington, D.C., for Electronics North America Corporation. Eugene A. Schoon, Tamar B. Kelber, Sidley, Austin, Brown & Wood, L.L.P., Chicago, Illinois, for Voicestream Wireless Corporation a/k/a Voicestream Wireless, Powertel, Inc., Powertel PCS, Inc., Powertel/Atlanta, Inc. Patrick R. Buckler, Walter T. Dudley, McGuirewoods, L.L.P., Baltimore, Maryland; Edward M. Crane, David L. Hanselman, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, Chicago, Illinois, for Nextel Communications of the Mid-Atlantic, Inc., Nextel of New York, Inc., and Nextel South Corp. James P. Ulwick, Kramon & Graham, P.A., Baltimore, Maryland, for NEC America, Inc. Francis A. Citera, Greenberg & Traurig, P.C., Chicago, Illinois, for Electronics Inc., Qualcomm Incorporated. Russell J. Rogers, Lawrence A. Slovensky, McKenna, Long & Aldridge, L.L.P., Atlanta, Georgia, for Partners Operating Corp. and Nextel Partners, Inc. Paul D. Krause,

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Laura N. Steel, Wilson, Elser, Moskowitz, Edleman & Dicker, L.L.P., Washington, D.C., for Matsushita Corporation of America, a/k/a Panasonic Corporation, and Sanyo North America, Inc. a/k/a Sanyo North America Group; Sanyo Corporation; Sanyo Business Systems, Corporation. Paul Vishny, Paul Freehling, D'Ancona & Pflaum, L.L.C., Chicago, Illinois, for Telecommunications Industry Association. Mark H. Kolman, Leslie R. Cohen, Dickstein, Shapiro, Morin & Oshinsky, L.L.P., Washington, D.C., for Audiovox Communications Corp. Charles L. Perry, Andrews & Kurth, L.L.P., Dallas, Texas, for Cellular One Group. Matthew T. Covell, Kevin B. Getzendanner, Arnall, Golden & Gregory, L.L.P., Atlanta, Georgia, for Mitsubishi Wireless Communications, Inc. Daniel S. Reinhardt, Steven J. Hewitson, Troutman Sanders, L.L.P., Atlanta, Georgia, for Southern Telecom, Inc. Gregg L. Bernstein, Denis J. Charlesworth, Martin, Snyder & Bernstein, P.A., Baltimore, Maryland; Charles L. Babcock, David T. Moran, James M. McCown, Ryan C. Wirtz, Jackson Walker, L.L.P., Dallas, Texas, for Ericsson Inc. Maureen Ellen Murphy, Murphy & Murphy, L.L.C., Catonsville, Maryland, for Baltimore Business Communications, Inc.

Before LUTTIG and MICHAEL, Circuit Judges, and KISER, Senior United States District Judge for the Western District of Virginia, sitting by designation.

Reversed and remanded by published opinion. Judge MICHAEL wrote the opinion, in which Judge LUTTIG joined. Senior Judge KISER wrote a dissenting opinin.

OPINION

MICHAEL, Circuit Judge:


This multidistrict litigation includes five class actions brought initially in the state courts of Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, New York, and Pennsylvania. The plaintiffs sue Nokia Inc. and other entities (collectively, "Nokia") involved in the manufacture and sale of wireless telephones. The plaintiffs claim that wireless telephones emit an unsafe level of radio frequency radiation and that Nokia has hidden this fact...

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274 practice notes
  • Anderson v. Sara Lee Corp., No. 05-1091.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (4th Circuit)
    • November 19, 2007
    ...Supremacy Clause in three ways — by "express preemption," by "field preemption," or by "conflict preemption." See Pinney v. Nokia, Inc., 402 F.3d 430, 453 (4th Cir.2005) (citing Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., 505 U.S. 504, 516, 112 S.Ct. 2608, 120 L.Ed.2d 407 (1992); Hillsborough County ......
  • Huskey v. Ethicon, Inc., Civil Action No. 2:12–cv–05201.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. Southern District of West Virginia
    • July 8, 2014
    ...169 (4th Cir.2002). Express preemption arises when “Congress expressly declares its intent to preempt state law.” Pinney v. Nokia, Inc., 402 F.3d 430, 453 (4th Cir.2005). Finally, conflict preemption occurs when “state law stands as an obstacle to the accomplishment and execution of the ful......
  • Funderburk v. S.C. Elec. & Gas Co., Civil Case No. 3:15-cv-04660-JMC
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. United States District Court of South Carolina
    • April 15, 2016
    ...the plaintiff's right to relief necessarily depends on resolution of a substantial question of federal law, ....” Pinney v. Nokia, Inc., 402 F.3d 430, 442 (4th Cir.2005) (quoting Christianson v. Colt. Indus. Operating Corp., 486 U.S. 800, 808, 108 S.Ct. 2166, 100 L.Ed.2d 811 (1988) ). To es......
  • Speaks v. U.S. Tobacco Coop., Inc., No. 5:12-CV-729-D
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. Eastern District of North Carolina
    • February 20, 2018
    ...substantial question of federal law, in that federal law is a necessary element of one of the well-pleaded claims." Pinney v. Nokia, Inc., 402 F.3d 430, 442 (4th Cir. 2005) (quotation and alterations omitted); see Grable & Sons Metal Prods., Inc. v. Darue Eng'g & Mfg., 545 U.S. 308, 312-14 ......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
274 cases
  • Anderson v. Sara Lee Corp., No. 05-1091.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (4th Circuit)
    • November 19, 2007
    ...Supremacy Clause in three ways — by "express preemption," by "field preemption," or by "conflict preemption." See Pinney v. Nokia, Inc., 402 F.3d 430, 453 (4th Cir.2005) (citing Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., 505 U.S. 504, 516, 112 S.Ct. 2608, 120 L.Ed.2d 407 (1992); Hillsborough County ......
  • Huskey v. Ethicon, Inc., Civil Action No. 2:12–cv–05201.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. Southern District of West Virginia
    • July 8, 2014
    ...169 (4th Cir.2002). Express preemption arises when “Congress expressly declares its intent to preempt state law.” Pinney v. Nokia, Inc., 402 F.3d 430, 453 (4th Cir.2005). Finally, conflict preemption occurs when “state law stands as an obstacle to the accomplishment and execution of the ful......
  • Funderburk v. S.C. Elec. & Gas Co., Civil Case No. 3:15-cv-04660-JMC
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. United States District Court of South Carolina
    • April 15, 2016
    ...the plaintiff's right to relief necessarily depends on resolution of a substantial question of federal law, ....” Pinney v. Nokia, Inc., 402 F.3d 430, 442 (4th Cir.2005) (quoting Christianson v. Colt. Indus. Operating Corp., 486 U.S. 800, 808, 108 S.Ct. 2166, 100 L.Ed.2d 811 (1988) ). To es......
  • Speaks v. U.S. Tobacco Coop., Inc., No. 5:12-CV-729-D
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. Eastern District of North Carolina
    • February 20, 2018
    ...substantial question of federal law, in that federal law is a necessary element of one of the well-pleaded claims." Pinney v. Nokia, Inc., 402 F.3d 430, 442 (4th Cir. 2005) (quotation and alterations omitted); see Grable & Sons Metal Prods., Inc. v. Darue Eng'g & Mfg., 545 U.S. 308, 312-14 ......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

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