Providence Volunteer Fire Department v. Town of Weddington

Decision Date18 April 2017
Docket NumberNo. COA16-80,COA16-80
Citation253 N.C.App. 126,800 S.E.2d 425
Parties PROVIDENCE VOLUNTEER FIRE DEPARTMENT, a North Carolina non-profit corporation, Plaintiff, v. The TOWN OF WEDDINGTON, a North Carolina municipal corporation, Defendant.
CourtNorth Carolina Court of Appeals

The Duggan Law Firm, PC, by Christopher Duggan, Henderson, Nystrom, Fletcher & Tydings, by Robert E. Henderson, Charlotte and John Fletcher, Belmont, for Plaintiff-Appellee.

Parker Poe Adams & Bernstein, LLP, Charlotte, by Anthony Fox and Benjamin R. Sullivan, for Defendant-Appellant.

INMAN, Judge.

A municipality's motion to dismiss a tort claim based on governmental immunity is properly denied when the motion does not refute a verified complaint alleging that the tort occurred when the municipality was engaged in a proprietary function. A preliminary injunction is inappropriate where a plaintiff has filed a notice of lis pendens , thereby securing a full, adequate, and complete remedy at law.

Providence Volunteer Fire Department, Inc. ("Plaintiff" or "Providence") owned a fire station in Union County that needed substantial and cost prohibitive repairs and improvements. Providence agreed to convey the fire station to the Town of Weddington ("Defendant" or the "Town") in exchange for the Town's agreement to pay for repairs and improvements. The Town also agreed to lease the improved fire station back to Providence and to continue to pay for fire suppression and emergency medical services from Providence for ten years. After the conveyance and completion of repairs, the Town terminated its relationship with Providence and leased the fire station to another fire department. Providence filed a law suit against the Town for breach of contract, fraud, and unfair and deceptive trade practices and filed a notice of lis pendens in Union County Superior Court.

The Town appeals from orders (1) granting a motion by Providence to amend its complaint, (2) denying in part its motion to dismiss Providence's tort claims based on governmental immunity, and (3) granting Providence's motion for a preliminary injunction. After careful review, we reverse the order granting injunctive relieve and otherwise affirm the trial court.

Factual Background

From 1954 to 2012, Providence provided fire protection service to the Town and the surrounding areas in Union and Mecklenburg counties. In May 2012, the Town Council passed a resolution establishing a Municipal Fire District and taking responsibility for overseeing and funding this new district. To do so, the Town raised taxes and entered into various agreements with Providence and two other area fire departments, the Wesley Chapel Volunteer Fire Department and the Stallings Fire Department.

At the heart of this action is a series of agreements between Providence and the Town stemming from the creation of the new fire district. In October 2013, Providence and the Town entered into an Interlocal Agreement, which contemplated, inter alia , that the Town would invest approximately one million dollars in repairs and improvements to the Hemby Road fire station owned by Providence, and in exchange, Providence would convey the fire station and the land upon which it rests (the "Property") to the Town. In addition to the Interlocal Agreement, the parties entered into a Fire Suppression Agreement (the "Suppression Agreement"), which designated Providence as the Town's primary fire protection and emergency medical service provider for ten years.

The Suppression Agreement provided that after the first year of the ten-year term, the amount of compensation paid to Providence would be "established during the Town's annual budget process." Either party could terminate the Suppression Agreement for cause, but if the Town terminated the agreement without cause, it was obligated to pay liquidated damages to Providence:

If this Agreement is terminated by the Town for a reason other than cause or mutual agreement of the parties, the Department shall be entitled to $750,000 as liquidated damages.... Such liquidated damages shall be the sole and exclusive remedy of the Department by reason of a default by Town under this Agreement, and the Department hereby waives and releases any right to sue Town, and hereby covenants not to sue Town, for specific performance of this Agreement or to prove that the Department's actual damages exceed the amount which is herein provided the department as full liquidated damages.

Almost a year later after executing the Interlocal Agreement and the Suppression Agreement, in August 2014, Providence conveyed the Property by deed1 and the parties entered into a third agreement (the "Lease Agreement") providing that the Town would lease the Property to Providence for the same ten-year period as the term of the Suppression Agreement. The Lease Agreement also provided that if the Suppression Agreement were terminated early, the Lease Agreement would be terminated at the same time.

During the year following the Interlocal and Suppression Agreements and preceding the Lease Agreement, several new Town Council members were elected. Providence alleges that the new Town Council members opposed the first two agreements and that the new council members’ acts and omissions fraudulently induced Providence to convey the Property to the Town through the Lease Agreement.

In February 2015, Providence projected a deficit of approximately $70,000 in its operations budget and requested increased funding from the Town in order to meet its obligations to provide fire suppression and emergency medical services according to the standards required by the Suppression Agreement. On 15 April 2015, the Town notified Providence that unless it could provide documents and information confirming that it would be able to meet its performance obligations without increased funding, the Town intended to terminate the Suppression Agreement for cause. Providence responded with a revised operating budget and other documents. The Town Council reviewed the documents and voted to terminate the Suppression Agreement. On 29 April 2015, the Town notified Providence that it was terminating the Suppression Agreement for cause, effective 29 July 2015, because Providence had failed to provide adequate assurances that it could meet its ongoing and future obligations; the Lease Agreement also would terminate on that date.

The Town then contracted with the Wesley Chapel Volunteer Fire Department ("Wesley Chapel") as its new primary fire service provider to begin on 29 July 2015. The Town and Wesley Chapel signed an agreement requiring Wesley Chapel to use the Hemby Road fire station and containing a lease for the Property. The agreement also provided an option for Wesley Chapel to purchase the Property from the Town for $750,000.

Procedural Background

On 4 June 2015, Providence filed a complaint alleging that the Town breached the Suppression Agreement and seeking $750,000 in liquidated damages. On 10 July 2015, Providence filed a First Verified Amended Complaint, which added claims for fraud in the inducement and unfair and deceptive trade practices. On the same day, Providence filed a notice of lis pendens on the Property.

The Town on 17 July 2015 filed a motion for a preliminary injunction seeking to force Providence to surrender possession of the fire station. The trial court granted the motion and ordered Providence to vacate the Property and enjoined Providence from obstructing or interfering with the Property's use, occupancy, or possession by the Town or the Town's designees.

On 27 July 2015, Providence filed a motion for a temporary restraining order and a preliminary injunction seeking to prevent the Town from selling, transferring, or conveying the Property or any interest therein. The trial court granted Providence's request for a temporary restraining order on 29 July 2015.

The Town filed a motion to dismiss Providence's tort claims on 29 July 2015, asserting complete governmental immunity. On 6 August 2015, Providence filed a motion to amend the First Verified Amended Complaint.

The trial court granted Providence's motion to amend and Providence filed its Second Verified Amended Complaint on 27 August 2015. The trial court granted the Town's motion to dismiss Providence's unfair and deceptive trade practices claim but denied the Town's motion to dismiss Providence's fraud claim.

The Town filed a notice of appeal from the orders denying its motion to dismiss the fraud claim, granting Providence's motion to amend, and granting Providence's motion for a preliminary injunction.

Analysis
I. Appellate Jurisdiction

As an initial matter, we address Providence's motion to dismiss the Town's appeal as interlocutory. Because the Town is appealing the trial court's denial of its motion to dismiss based in part on a challenge to personal jurisdiction, we hold that it is properly before us.

The North Carolina Supreme Court has not directly addressed whether governmental immunity is an issue of personal jurisdiction or subject matter jurisdiction, and consequently whether an appeal of a denial of immunity should be reviewed either as a challenge to personal jurisdiction or subject matter jurisdiction. However, this Court has classified the issue as one of personal jurisdiction, which permits an immediate appeal. See, e.g., Can Am S., LLC v. State , 234 N.C.App. 119, 123-24, 759 S.E.2d 304, 308 (2014) ("[B]eginning with Sides v. Hosp. , 22 N.C.App. 117, 205 S.E.2d 784 (1974), mod. on other grounds , 287 N.C. 14, 213 S.E.2d 297 (1975), this Court has consistently held that: (1) the defense of sovereign immunity presents a question of personal, not subject matter jurisdiction, and (2) denial of Rule 12(b)(2) motions premised on sovereign immunity are sufficient to trigger immediate appeal under section 1-277(b)."); Data Gen. Corp. v. Cnty. of Durham , 143 N.C.App. 97, 100, 545 S.E.2d 243, 245-46 (2001) ("[A]n appeal of a motion to dismiss based on sovereign immunity presents a question of...

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7 cases
  • Providence Volunteer Fire Dep't, Inc. v. Town of Weddington
    • United States
    • North Carolina Supreme Court
    • August 19, 2022
    ...and reversed the trial court's decision to grant Providence's preliminary injunction motion. Providence Volunteer Fire Dep't v. Town of Weddington , 253 N.C. App. 126, 140–41, 800 S.E.2d 425 (2017). On 6 September 2017, Providence filed another motion to amend its complaint, which the trial......
  • Ponder v. Been
    • United States
    • North Carolina Court of Appeals
    • December 31, 2020
    ...of personal jurisdiction depends upon the information presented to the trial court. See Providence Volunteer Fire Department v. Town of Weddington , 253 N.C. App. 126, 135, 800 S.E.2d 425, 432 (2017). In this case, both parties submitted voluminous evidence.[W]hen the parties submit competi......
  • Dipasupil v. Neely
    • United States
    • North Carolina Court of Appeals
    • November 19, 2019
    ...governmental immunity, which were determined to be matters of personal jurisdiction. See Providence Volunteer Fire Dep’t v. Town of Weddington , 253 N.C. App. 126, 131-32, 800 S.E.2d 425, 430 (2017) (distinguishing Church , 94 N.C. App. at 288, 380 S.E.2d at 168, from Can Am S., LLC v. Stat......
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    • Superior Court of North Carolina
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    ... ... the course of litigation." Providence Volunteer Fire ... Dep't v. Town of Weddington , ... ...
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