Reazin v. Blue Cross & Blue Shield of Kansas, Inc.

Citation635 F. Supp. 1287
Decision Date23 May 1986
Docket NumberNo. 85-6027-K.,85-6027-K.
PartiesWalter L. REAZIN, M.D.; HCA Health Services of Kansas, Inc., d/b/a Wesley Medical Center; Health Care Plus, Inc.; and New Century Life Insurance Co., Plaintiffs and Counterclaim Defendants, v. BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD OF KANSAS, INC., Defendant and Counterclaim Plaintiff, and HMO KANSAS, INC., Additional Counterclaim Plaintiff, v. HOSPITAL CORPORATION OF AMERICA, Additional Counterclaim Defendant.
CourtU.S. District Court — District of Kansas






Robert H. Rawson, Jr., of Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue, Cleveland, Ohio, Donald R. Newkirk, of Fleeson, Gooing, Coulson & Kitch, Wichita, Kan., for plaintiffs and counterclaim defendants.

Dan R. Shulman, Minneapolis, Minn., Michael J. Unrein and Gary McCallister, of Davis, Unrein, Hummer & McCallister, Topeka, Kan., Joseph M. Alioto, Alioto & Alioto, San Francisco, Cal., for defendants and counterclaim plaintiffs.


PATRICK F. KELLY, District Judge.

The parties to this action are Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) through its subsidiary, HCA Health Services of Kansas, Inc., doing business as Wesley Medical Center (Wesley); Health Care Plus, Inc. (HCP), and New Century Life Insurance Co. (New Century), both HCA subsidiaries; Walter L. Reazin, M.D. (Reazin); and Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas (BCBSK). Plaintiffs contend BCBSK's threatened termination of its contracting provider agreement with Wesley, if carried out, will violate federal antitrust, state, and common laws. Defendant answered denying those allegations, and counterclaimed alleging an illegal boycott of its subsidiary HMO Kansas, Inc. (HMOK), and restraint of trade by HCA's acquisition of Wesley, HCP and New Century. Defendant requested, and was granted, permission to add HMOK as a counterclaim plaintiff, and HCA as a counterclaim defendant. (Memorandum and Order, Jan. 8, 1986, Rec. 24.) BCBSK then moved for summary judgment on the entirety of plaintiffs' complaint. (Rec. 50-51.) Oral argument on the motion was heard May 9, 1986. Upon full review of the parties' briefs, deposition testimony, evidence and arguments, the Court grants defendant's motion in part and denies it in part, as more fully explained below.


In accordance with the dictates of Fed.R. Civ.P. 56(d) the Court finds the following to be the material facts of the case existing without substantial controversy. The parties stipulated this Court has jurisdiction over the parties and venue is properly laid in this district. (Pretrial Conf. Order, p. 4, Rec. 76; hereafter "Stipulation —".)

The Parties

BCBSK is a Kansas corporation organized and doing business in Kansas, with principal executive offices in Topeka, Kansas. Chartered under a special state enabling act, BCBSK is engaged in the business of providing private health care financing to businesses and individuals in Kansas, including businesses and individuals in Wichita and Sedgwick County. It also operates a health maintenance organization in Kansas through HMO Kansas, Inc. (HMOK), a wholly-owned Blue Cross subsidiary. (Stipulation h.) BCBSK's service area includes the entire State of Kansas, with the exception of Johnson and Wyandotte Counties which are serviced by BCBS of Kansas City, a separate organization. (Stipulation j; Johnston Depo., p. 34.) BCBSK and its subsidiary, HMOK, compete with plaintiff HCP in the private health care finance markets in the State of Kansas and Sedgwick County. (Stipulation k.)

Blue Cross of Kansas, Inc. was formed in 1941 pursuant to special enabling legislation passed by the Kansas Legislature, and was organized as a private mutual nonprofit hospital service corporation pursuant to K.S.A. 40-1801 et seq. The primary purpose of Blue Cross of Kansas, Inc. was to provide private health care financing to its subscribers covering health care costs. (Stipulation 1.) In 1983 BCBSK was formed by combining Blue Cross of Kansas, Inc. and Blue Shield of Kansas, Inc., pursuant to enabling legislation. (Stipulation m.)

Under that enabling legislation BCBSK is required to pursue health care cost containment as the primary goal in conducting its business. (Stipulation o.) In the past Blue Cross utilized retrospective reimbursement contracts with Kansas hospitals, providing direct reimbursement on the basis of 104% of allowable costs. (Stipulation p.) Under this "charge reimbursement program," Blue Cross held the right to approve hospital budgets and rate structures, and agreed to pay unlimited charges based on approved rate structures. This program resulted in wide differences in payments to hospitals even in the same geographic area for equivalent diagnoses. (Chase Depo., p. 33.) In the late 1970's, Blue Cross developed a new prospective rate contract for hospitals and encouraged all hospitals in the state to continue as participating providers under the contract. (Stipulation p.)

On January 1, 1984, BCBSK offered a new contract known as the "Contracting Provider Agreement (Hospital) of the Competitive Allowance Program (CAP)", and again encouraged all hospitals to participate. (Stipulation p.) The CAP program established the maximum amount BCBSK would reimburse a provider for services within a particular diagnostic related group (DRG). In cases where a patient remains in a hospital and generates more charges than the established allowable, BCBSK nevertheless reimburses the hospital only up to the CAP amount. (Chase Depo., p. 33.) CAP is designed to guarantee BCBSK receives competitively favorable reimbursement levels from participating hospitals, thereby insuring BCBSK can continue to offer a competitively priced product to the subscribing public. (Johnston Depo., p. 180.) CAP also acts to control health care costs by providing hospitals incentives for cost effective management. (Chase Depo., p. 33.)

Under the contracting provider agreements hospitals provide services to BCBSK subscribers, which services are covered by the subscribers' BCBSK insurance policies. The contracting provider agreements contain a number of cost containment provisions, perhaps the most important of which requires the hospital to accept the "maximum allowable payments" (MAPs), established by BCBSK for various services, as payment in full for those services provided BCBSK subscribers. This "hold-harmless" provision ensures subscribers will not receive bills for covered services in excess of the amount BCBSK pays a participating hospital; it protects subscribers by assuring predictability of their health care expenses. (Stipulation o.)

The MAP program is not a guarantor of ultimate cost containment, but an initiative by BCBSK to inhibit premium rate increases for its subscribers. (Johnston Depo., p. 176.) BCBSK establishes MAPs within various "peer groups" within the State of Kansas. Peer Group V, including the four Wichita hospitals, is one of two geographically determined peer groups in the state; Topeka hospitals constitute the second geographically determined peer group. Peer groups for the remaining Kansas hospitals are established on a statewide basis by reference to hospital size. (Stipulation t.)

Another important provision of the contracting provider agreements is the "most favored nations" clause, stating that if a hospital decides it can provide services at charges less expensive than the MAPs, BCBSK subscribers will have the benefit of the less expensive charges. (Johnston Depo., p. 181.) The clause states:

In the event that the hospital has entered into an agreement with any other party under which such hospital agrees to accept an amount for any or all services as payment in full which is less than the amount such a hospital accepts from BCBS as payment in full for such services, such lesser amounts shall be the maximum allowable payment hereunder. Further, if the hospital provides discounts for cash or for other payment arrangements on a routine basis, such discounted amounts shall be the MAP hereunder if that amount is less than the MAP. The hospital agrees to fully and promptly inform BCBS of the existence of such agreements or discounts and their effect on the amounts which are accepted as payment in full. This paragraph shall not be construed as applying to reimbursement arrangements between the hospital and a BCBS owned or operated HMO operating under a certificate of authority issued by the State of Kansas, or reimbursement under Titles XVIII, XIX and V of the Social Security Act.

(Id., p. 185; Depo. Exh. 14, p. 4.) This clause requires a contracting hospital to give BCBSK the most economical rate the provider can charge, whether or not that rate is given to competing third party payors. BCBSK does not want other insurance companies receiving lower rates from its contracting hospitals. (Id., p. 182.) Contracts of other insurance carriers contain similar clauses. (Id., p. 184.)

Under the BCBSK enabling act, hospitals are not required to contract with BCBSK but in their own discretion are permitted to choose either contracting status ("participating hospitals"), or noncontracting status ("nonparticipating hospitals"). (Stipulation n.) BCBSK's historic policy has been to enter contractual arrangements with as many Kansas hospitals as possible in an effort to contain costs (Haas Depo., p. 45), and to encourage hospitals to remain on participating status (Johnston Depo., p. 168). The benefits to a participating hospital are significant; periodic interim payments from BCBSK; on-line electronic verification of patient benefits; predictability of, and prompt direct payment of benefits; a corresponding good cash flow and reduced or eliminated potential for bad debts; tape-to-tape billing programs; listing in the BCBSK directory of providers; a better and valuable public image of providing high quality care at reasonable cost; representation on the BCBSK Board...

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9 cases
  • Reazin v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas, Inc.
    • United States
    • U.S. Court of Appeals — Tenth Circuit
    • March 29, 1990
    ...claim. 2 FACTS The complex facts and history of this case have been thoroughly recounted in the two district court opinions. See Reazin I, 635 F.Supp. 1287, and Reazin II, 663 F.Supp. 1360. We recite here only the basic undisputed facts relevant to this Blue Cross, a non-profit company form......
  • Reazin v. Blue Cross & Blue Shield of Kansas, Inc.
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — District of Kansas
    • May 22, 1987 in its earlier memorandum and order on defendant's motion for summary judgment. Reazin v. Blue Cross & Blue Shield of Kansas, Inc., 635 F.Supp. 1287, 1297-1300 (D.Kan.1986) ("Reazin I"). I will not repeat that background material here other than to note particular items underlyin......
  • St. Francis Reg. Med. Ctr. v. Blue Cross
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — District of Kansas
    • December 30, 1992
    ...public policy. This court has previously addressed the use of Blue Cross contracting provider agreements in Reazin v. Blue Cross & Blue Shield, 635 F.Supp. 1287 (D.Kan. 1986) and 663 F.Supp. 1360 (D.Kan.1987). The various federal antitrust claims raised in Reazin have not been raised here. ......
  • Blue Cross & Blue Shield v. Marshfield Clinic
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — Western District of Wisconsin
    • October 27, 1994
    ...a health insurer may pass on a supra competitive price to the subscriber, does not destroy antitrust injury. Reazin v. B.C. & B.S. of Kansas, Inc., 635 F.Supp. 1287 (D.Kan.1986), aff'd. and remanded, 899 F.2d 951 (10th Cir.1990), cert. denied, 497 U.S. 1005, 110 S.Ct. 3241, 111 L.Ed.2d 752 ......
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2 books & journal articles
  • Table of Cases
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    • ABA Antitrust Library Antitrust Class Actions Handbook
    • January 1, 2018
    ...1280 (10th Cir. 1999), 92 Reap v. Cont’l Cas. Co., 199 F.R.D. 536 (D.N.J. 2001), 186 Reazin v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas, 635 F. Supp. 1287 (D. Kan. 1986), 40 Redman v. RadioShack Corp., 2014 WL 497438 (N.D. Ill. 2014), 253 Redman v. RadioShack Corp., 2014 WL 497438 (N.D. Ill. 20......
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    • ABA Antitrust Library Antitrust Class Actions Handbook
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    ...ANTITRUST LAW DEVELOPMENTS, supra note 23, at 939-41. 131. 15 U.S.C. § 26 (2000). 132. Reazin v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas, 635 F. Supp. 1287, 1319 (D. Kan. 1986); see also ANTITRUST LAW DEVELOPMENTS, supra note 23, at 802. 133. See, e.g. , Zenith Radio Corp. v. Hazeltine Researc......

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