Reprosystem, BV v. SCM Corp.

Decision Date30 June 1981
Docket NumberNo. 77 Civ. 5705 (RWS).,77 Civ. 5705 (RWS).
Citation522 F. Supp. 1257
PartiesREPROSYSTEM, B. V. and N. Norman Muller, Plaintiffs, v. SCM CORPORATION, Defendant.
CourtU.S. District Court — Southern District of New York


Hale, Russell, Gray, Seaman & Birkett, New York City, for plaintiffs; Selvyn Seidel, Lee A. Pollock, New York City, of counsel.

Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, New York City, for defendant; Peter Fleming, Jr., John E. Sprizzo, Jamie V. Gregg, New York City, of counsel.


SWEET, District Judge.

This action was filed by plaintiffs Reprosystem, B. V. ("Reprosystem") a Netherlands corporation, and N. Norman Muller ("Muller"), a New York resident, against the defendant SCM Corporation ("SCM"), a New York corporation. The complaint alleged damages for breach of contract, promissory estoppel, failure to perform and to negotiate in good faith, unjust enrichment, and fraud under the federal securities law and the common law. After extensive discovery, a four week trial before the court was held in the course of which 17 witnesses testified and well over 1,000 documents were introduced into evidence. At issue are the rights and liabilities of the parties arising from an unsuccessful effort in 1976 by Muller and Reprosystem to purchase the European photocopier business of SCM. Both sides were represented by extremely able counsel, not only during the events giving rise to the litigation but particularly during its trial. The issues presented, both factual and legal, constitute an almost exhaustive pathology of an important corporate transaction. For reasons more fully set forth below, Reprosystem and Muller are entitled to recover certain of their damages resulting from SCM's breach of contract and failure to bargain in good faith.

The Parties

SCM is a multinational conglomerate manufacturing and distributing a number of industrial, commercial and consumer products. Its shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Prior to 1975 and during 1976 and the first half of 1977 it engaged in the business of marketing, leasing and servicing office copiers, paper and toner throughout Western Europe, the Middle East and Africa. This business was conducted by its International Business Equipment Division through six wholly owned subsidiaries: Smith-Corona Marchant, S.A., a French corporation; SCM International S.A., a Belgian corporation; SCM (Switzerland) S.A., a Swiss corporation; SCM (Deutschland) GmbH, a German corporation; Smith-Corona Marchant International S.A., a Swiss (Chur) corporation; and SCM (United Kingdom) Ltd., a United Kingdom corporation. (These six subsidiaries are collectively referred to as the "copier subsidiaries" or "subsidiaries.") During the 1976 fiscal year (ending June 30, 1976) the copier subsidiaries had assets of about $17,000,000, total sales exceeding $40,000,000, operating profits exceeding $4,000,000, and approximately 1000 employees.

Reprosystem was organized in the fall of 1976 to hold the shares and assets of the subsidiaries. Its shares were owned by Reprographex Antilles, N.V., a Dutch Antilles corporation which in turn is a wholly owned subsidiary of Reprographex International, Inc., a Delaware subsidiary of MacMuller Industries, Inc., another Delaware corporation. At the time of the transaction, a majority interest of Reprographex International, Inc. was owned by Muller individually. Muller also owned a controlling interest in MacMuller Industries, Inc. which during most of the period in question owned and operated Eagle Shirts, Inc. and Petrocelli Clothes, Inc. Muller was responsible not only for his own conduct as an individual but for that of the corporations which he controlled. He was an experienced businessman with "ability to raise cash."

The Preliminaries

Late in 1975 at a corporate planning meeting in Bermuda, Paul Elicker, the President and Chief Executive and Chairman of the Board of SCM ("Elicker") and Herbert Egli, the Vice President — Finance and Controller of SCM, ("Egli") and presumably others concluded it was in SCM's best interest to divest itself of its European copier business. This decision was communicated to Frank DeMaio, Vice President and General Manager of the International Group ("DeMaio").

The business of the subsidiaries consisted principally of the distribution of zinc oxide coated paper photocopiers, generally through lease of copier equipment, and sometimes through sale. Under the lease method, the subsidiaries would lease and service equipment, and this equipment was identified as Equipment Held for Lease. The subsidiaries also marketed paper supplies and toner to equipment users, and serviced the equipment. Between 1972 and 1974 annual operating profits of the copier subsidiaries ranged from about $4 million to about $5 million. DeMaio and Elicker sought out potential purchasers of this business, principally among its suppliers, without success. Through DeMaio a firm specializing in bringing together those interested in buying and selling corporate interests learned of the SCM purpose and advised Muller, who met first with DeMaio and then with Elicker and DeMaio in April, 1976. At the outset Muller and DeMaio had an understanding that if the proposed sale was accomplished DeMaio would receive an equity interest in the acquiring company. In May a meeting was attended by Muller, Elicker and William Rodich ("Rodich"), President of the Business Equipment Division of SCM of which the International Group and the copier subsidiaries were a part. The business of the subsidiaries was described. Muller was provided with a statement of the asset value of the subsidiaries as of March 31, 1976, showing an aggregate book value of $16.8 million on an unaudited basis. The current profit and loss statement, also provided to Muller, showed a nine month profit of about $3.0 million.

A subsequent review by SCM's accounting department indicated that this unaudited statement might have been overstated by $1 million. However, there is no evidence that, if the asset value was indeed overstated, the overstatement was deliberate and for a fraudulent purpose. The full disclosure offered to Muller and his accountants by SCM in the fall of 1976 also serves to refute any fraudulent purpose. A projected drop in operating profits in fiscal 1976-1977 for the subsidiaries of less than $600,000 was not disclosed.

Although not expressed in writing initially, both parties had certain underlying concerns. SCM desired to divest itself of the business, to protect against any further liabilities either on bank or employee severance guarantees, and to protect its good will and relationships with customers and suppliers since it intended to remain in the typewriter business. Muller sought to purchase an ongoing business and its distribution network with its capacity to introduce new items. Early in the discussions it was recognized that the availability of a plain paper copier as opposed to a zinc oxide coated paper copier was an important, if not vital, aspect of the business. SCM, having decided to get out of the copying business, sought to minimize its commitment to this new product, while Muller believed a plain paper copier essential to the continuation of the business. Rodich and DeMaio had concluded that the availability of plain paper copiers was necessary, regardless of the ownership of the business, and during the spring of 1976 DeMaio travelled to Japan and reached a preliminary understanding with Mita, a Japanese manufacturer, to provide plain paper copiers for SCM's benefit. These underlying concerns of the parties were articulated and understood but not made the subject of any writing at this early state.

By letter of May 7, 1976, Muller offered to pay $9.0 million for the subsidiaries. His letter also contained the following language, which forms a keynote to SCM's position on the law:

This offer is made subject to the following conditions:
1. that a satisfactory audit review will be performed by our accounting firm, S. D. Leidesdorf & Co.
2. that a formal agreement, which is satisfactory to SCM and ourselves be entered into.

Rodich informed Muller that his May 7 letter provided the basis for negotiation, but all further discussions were deferred because of a security offering by SCM and a consequent "quiet period." However, on August 4 discussions were resumed at a luncheon at the Atrium Club attended by Rodich, Egli, Muller and Brier, the latter being a participant in MacMuller Industries, as well as officers of Citibank where Muller and his companies banked. One of the purposes of the meeting was to discuss Muller's financial standing. Wallace of Citibank stated his satisfaction with the bank's relationship with Muller and added that he dealt only with seven figure accounts. No further representations were made or requested. Muller at the time was seeking financing from Citibank, financing which he failed to obtain. Shortly thereafter SCM obtained a Bishop's Service and a Dun & Bradstreet report relating to Muller. Muller's strengths were described in the Bishop's Service report by one source as "putting together financial deals, acquisitions and raising money." No further questions were raised concerning Muller's finances during this phase of the discussions.

The Agreement in Principle

Shortly after the Atrium meeting Rodich gave Muller a list of items which he considered to be essential to SCM in connection with the contemplated transaction. At a later meeting in September this list was supplemented by four additional items. These memoranda are annexed as an Appendix to this decision. These points were viewed as "the Bible" by Rodich according to Muller and were non-negotiable. Whether or not the term was in fact used, these documents constituted the basic agreement which remained in place throughout the discussions, including the formula by which the purchase price was to be calculated. Muller accepted these...

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