Republican Party of Minnesota v. White, No. 01-521.

CourtUnited States Supreme Court
PartiesREPUBLICAN PARTY OF MINNESOTA ET AL. <I>v.</I> WHITE, CHAIRPERSON, MINNESOTA BOARD OF JUDICIAL STANDARDS, ET AL.
Decision Date27 June 2002
Docket NumberNo. 01-521.

Page 765

536 U.S. 765
REPUBLICAN PARTY OF MINNESOTA ET AL.
v.
WHITE, CHAIRPERSON, MINNESOTA BOARD OF JUDICIAL STANDARDS, ET AL.
No. 01-521.
Supreme Court of the United States.
Argued March 26, 2002.
Decided June 27, 2002.

CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE EIGHTH CIRCUIT

The Minnesota Supreme Court has adopted a canon of judicial conduct that prohibits a "candidate for a judicial office" from "announc[ing] his or her views on disputed legal or political issues" (hereinafter announce clause). While running for associate justice of that court, petitioner Gregory Wersal (and others) filed this suit seeking a declaration that the announce clause violates the First Amendment and an injunction against its enforcement. The District Court granted respondent officials summary judgment, and the Eighth Circuit affirmed.

Held: The announce clause violates the First Amendment. Pp. 770-788.

(a) The record demonstrates that the announce clause prohibits a judicial candidate from stating his views on any specific nonfanciful legal question within the province of the court for which he is running, except in the context of discussing past decisions — and in the latter context as well, if he expresses the view that he is not bound by stare decisis. Pp. 770-774.

(b) The announce clause both prohibits speech based on its content and burdens a category of speech that is at the core of First Amendment freedoms — speech about the qualifications of candidates for public office. The Eighth Circuit concluded, and the parties do not dispute, that the proper test to be applied to determine the constitutionality of such a restriction is strict scrutiny, under which respondents have the burden to prove that the clause is (1) narrowly tailored, to serve (2) a compelling state interest. E. g., Eu v. San Francisco County Democratic Central Comm., 489 U. S. 214, 222. That court found that respondents had established two interests as sufficiently compelling to justify the announce clause: preserving the state judiciary's impartiality and preserving the appearance of that impartiality. Pp. 774-775.

(c) Under any definition of "impartiality," the announce clause fails strict scrutiny. First, it is plain that the clause is not narrowly tailored to serve impartiality (or its appearance) in the traditional sense of the word, i. e., as a lack of bias for or against either party to the proceeding. Indeed, the clause is barely tailored to serve that interest at all, inasmuch as it does not restrict speech for or against particular parties,

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but rather speech for or against particular issues. Second, although "impartiality" in the sense of a lack of preconception in favor of or against a particular legal view may well be an interest served by the announce clause, pursuing this objective is not a compelling state interest, since it is virtually impossible, and hardly desirable, to find a judge who does not have preconceptions about the law, see Laird v. Tatum, 409 U. S. 824, 835. Third, the Court need not decide whether achieving "impartiality" (or its appearance) in the sense of openmindedness is a compelling state interest because, as a means of pursuing this interest, the announce clause is so woefully underinclusive that the Court does not believe it was adopted for that purpose. See, e. g., City of Ladue v. Gilleo, 512 U. S. 43, 52-53. Respondents have not carried the burden imposed by strict scrutiny of establishing that statements made during an election campaign are uniquely destructive of openmindedness. See, e. g., Landmark Communications, Inc. v. Virginia, 435 U. S. 829, 841. Pp. 775-784.

(d) A universal and long-established tradition of prohibiting certain conduct creates a strong presumption that the prohibition is constitutional, see McIntyre v. Ohio Elections Comm'n, 514 U. S. 334, 375-377. However, the practice of prohibiting speech by judicial candidates is neither ancient nor universal. The Court knows of no such prohibitions throughout the 19th and the first quarter of the 20th century, and they are still not universally adopted. This does not compare well with the traditions deemed worthy of attention in, e. g., Burson v. Freeman, 504 U. S. 191, 205-206. Pp. 785-787.

(e) There is an obvious tension between Minnesota's Constitution, which requires judicial elections, and the announce clause, which places most subjects of interest to the voters off limits. The First Amendment does not permit Minnesota to leave the principle of elections in place while preventing candidates from discussing what the elections are about. See, e. g., Renne v. Geary, 501 U. S. 312, 349. Pp. 787-788.

247 F. 3d 854, reversed and remanded.

SCALIA, J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which REHNQUIST, C. J., and O'CONNOR, KENNEDY, and THOMAS, JJ., joined. O'CONNOR, J., post, p. 788, and KENNEDY, J., post, p. 792, filed concurring opinions. STEVENS, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which SOUTER, GINSBURG, and BREYER, JJ., joined, post, p. 797. GINSBURG, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which STEVENS, SOUTER, and BREYER, JJ., joined, post, p. 803.

James Bopp, Jr., argued the cause for petitioners Republican Party of Minnesota et al. With him on the briefs were

Page 767

Thomas J. Marzen, Richard E. Coleson, and Ronald D. Rotunda. William F. Mohrman and Erick G. Kaardal filed briefs for petitioners Wersal et al.

Alan I. Gilbert, Chief Deputy and Solicitor General of Minnesota, argued the cause for respondents. With him on the brief were Mike Hatch, Attorney General, Kristine L. Eiden, Deputy Attorney General, and Julie Ralston Aoki, Mark B. Levinger, and Thomas C. Vasaly, Assistant Attorneys General.*

Page 768

JUSTICE SCALIA delivered the opinion of the Court.


The question presented in this case is whether the First Amendment permits the Minnesota Supreme Court to prohibit candidates for judicial election in that State from announcing their views on disputed legal and political issues.

I

Since Minnesota's admission to the Union in 1858, the State's Constitution has provided for the selection of all state judges by popular election. Minn. Const., Art. VI, § 7. Since 1912, those elections have been nonpartisan. Act of June 19, ch. 2, 1912 Minn. Laws Special Sess., pp. 4-6. Since 1974, they have been subject to a legal restriction which states that a "candidate for a judicial office, including an incumbent judge," shall not "announce his or her views on disputed legal or political issues." Minn. Code of Judicial Conduct, Canon 5(A)(3)(d)(i) (2000). This prohibition, promulgated by the Minnesota Supreme Court and based on Canon 7(B) of the 1972 American Bar Association (ABA) Model Code of Judicial Conduct, is known as the "announce clause." Incumbent judges who violate it are subject to discipline, including removal, censure, civil penalties, and suspension without pay. Minn. Rules of Board on Judicial Standards 4(a)(6), 11(d) (2002). Lawyers who run for judicial office also must comply with the announce clause. Minn. Rule of Professional Conduct 8.2(b) (2002) ("A lawyer who is a candidate for judicial office shall comply with the applicable provisions of the Code of Judicial Conduct"). Those who violate it are subject to, inter alia, disbarment, suspension, and probation. Rule 8.4(a); Minn. Rules on Lawyers Professional Responsibility 8-14, 15(a) (2002).

In 1996, one of the petitioners, Gregory Wersal, ran for associate justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court. In the course of the campaign, he distributed literature criticizing several Minnesota Supreme Court decisions on issues such as crime, welfare, and abortion. A complaint against Wersal

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challenging, among other things, the propriety of this literature was filed with the Office of Lawyers Professional Responsibility, the agency which, under the direction of the Minnesota Lawyers Professional Responsibility Board,1 investigates and prosecutes ethical violations of lawyer candidates for judicial office. The Lawyers Board dismissed the complaint; with regard to the charges that his campaign materials violated the announce clause, it expressed doubt whether the clause could constitutionally be enforced. Nonetheless, fearing that further ethical complaints would jeopardize his ability to practice law, Wersal withdrew from the election. In 1998, Wersal ran again for the same office. Early in that race, he sought an advisory opinion from the Lawyers Board with regard to whether it planned to enforce the announce clause. The Lawyers Board responded equivocally, stating that, although it had significant doubts about the constitutionality of the provision, it was unable to answer his question because he had not submitted a list of the announcements he wished to make.2

Shortly thereafter, Wersal filed this lawsuit in Federal District Court against respondents,3 seeking, inter alia, a

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declaration that the announce clause violates the First Amendment and an injunction against its enforcement. Wersal alleged that he was forced to refrain from announcing his views on disputed issues during the 1998 campaign, to the point where he declined response to questions put to him by the press and public, out of concern that he might run afoul of the announce clause. Other plaintiffs in the suit, including the Minnesota Republican Party, alleged that, because the clause kept Wersal from announcing his views, they were unable to learn those views and support or oppose his candidacy accordingly. The parties filed cross-motions for summary judgment, and the District Court found in favor of respondents, holding that the announce clause did not violate the First Amendment. 63 F. Supp. 2d 967 (Minn. 1999). Over a dissent by Judge Beam, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit affirmed. Republican Party of Minn. v. Kelly, 247 F. 3d 854 (2001). We granted certiorari. 534 U. S. 1054 (2001).

II

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  • Ross v. Early, No. 12–2547.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (4th Circuit)
    • March 5, 2014
    ...of the Policy does not, in any case, render the City's rationale “a challenge to the credulous.” Republican Party of Minn. v. White, 536 U.S. 765, 780, 122 S.Ct. 2528, 153 L.Ed.2d 694 (2002); see, e.g., Nat'l Ass'n of Mfrs. v. Taylor, 582 F.3d 1, 17 (D.C.Cir.2009) (“ ‘Because the primary pu......
  • United States v. Brune, No. 12–3322.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (10th Circuit)
    • September 19, 2014
    ...Comm'n on Ethics v. Carrigan, ––– U.S. ––––, 131 S.Ct. 2343, 2347–48, 180 L.Ed.2d 150 (2011) (quoting Republican Party of Minn. v. White, 536 U.S. 765, 785, 122 S.Ct. 2528, 153 L.Ed.2d 694 (2002) ).2. Facial Overbreadth 5 To succeed in an overbreadth challenge, thereby invalidating all enfo......
  • Torres v. New York State Bd. of Elections, Docket No. 06-0635-CV.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (2nd Circuit)
    • August 30, 2006
    ...Law Nothing in the Constitution requires a state to provide for the popular election of its judges. Republican Party of Minn. v. White, 536 U.S. 765, 788, 122 S.Ct. 2528, 153 L.Ed.2d 694 (2002). Even when a state chooses to do so, the Constitution grants it substantial authority to structur......
  • Boyd v. County of Henrico, Record No. 0377-02-2
    • United States
    • Virginia Court of Appeals of Virginia
    • February 24, 2004
    ...exacting scrutiny." Turner Broad. System, Inc., 512 U.S. at 641-42, 114 S.Ct. at 2458-59; see also Republican Party of Minnesota v. White, 536 U.S. 765, 774-75, 122 S.Ct. 2528, 2534-35, 153 L.Ed.2d 694 (2002); Los Angeles v. Alameda Books, Inc., 535 U.S. 425, 434, 122 S.Ct. 1728, 1733-34, 1......
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352 cases
  • Ross v. Early, No. 12–2547.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (4th Circuit)
    • March 5, 2014
    ...of the Policy does not, in any case, render the City's rationale “a challenge to the credulous.” Republican Party of Minn. v. White, 536 U.S. 765, 780, 122 S.Ct. 2528, 153 L.Ed.2d 694 (2002); see, e.g., Nat'l Ass'n of Mfrs. v. Taylor, 582 F.3d 1, 17 (D.C.Cir.2009) (“ ‘Because the primary pu......
  • United States v. Brune, No. 12–3322.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (10th Circuit)
    • September 19, 2014
    ...Comm'n on Ethics v. Carrigan, ––– U.S. ––––, 131 S.Ct. 2343, 2347–48, 180 L.Ed.2d 150 (2011) (quoting Republican Party of Minn. v. White, 536 U.S. 765, 785, 122 S.Ct. 2528, 153 L.Ed.2d 694 (2002) ).2. Facial Overbreadth 5 To succeed in an overbreadth challenge, thereby invalidating all enfo......
  • Torres v. New York State Bd. of Elections, Docket No. 06-0635-CV.
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (2nd Circuit)
    • August 30, 2006
    ...Law Nothing in the Constitution requires a state to provide for the popular election of its judges. Republican Party of Minn. v. White, 536 U.S. 765, 788, 122 S.Ct. 2528, 153 L.Ed.2d 694 (2002). Even when a state chooses to do so, the Constitution grants it substantial authority to structur......
  • Boyd v. County of Henrico, Record No. 0377-02-2
    • United States
    • Virginia Court of Appeals of Virginia
    • February 24, 2004
    ...exacting scrutiny." Turner Broad. System, Inc., 512 U.S. at 641-42, 114 S.Ct. at 2458-59; see also Republican Party of Minnesota v. White, 536 U.S. 765, 774-75, 122 S.Ct. 2528, 2534-35, 153 L.Ed.2d 694 (2002); Los Angeles v. Alameda Books, Inc., 535 U.S. 425, 434, 122 S.Ct. 1728, 1733-34, 1......
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10 books & journal articles
  • THE ARCHITECTURE OF JUDICIAL ETHICS.
    • United States
    • University of Pennsylvania Law Review Vol. 169 Nbr. 8, August 2021
    • August 1, 2021
    ...96-104 and accompanying text. (14) See infra notes 150-151 and accompanying text. (15) See infra notes 163-169 and accompanying text. (16) 536 U.S. 765, 788 (17) Burbank, supra note 1, at 339 (describing the double-sided coin metaphor and its application to judicial accountability theory); ......
  • The Causes and Consequences of Gubernatorial Endorsements
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    • American Politics Research Nbr. 39-6, November 2011
    • November 1, 2011
    ...changing tone of judicial elections is due in part to states’ interpretations of the decision in Republican Party of Minnesota v. White 536 U.S. 765 (2002), which lifted some restrictions on the campaign speech of judicial 6. The movement to devolve power to the states has been a consistent......
  • The Influence of Partisanship, Ideology, and the Law on Redistricting Decisions in the Federal Courts
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    • Political Research Quarterly Nbr. 65-4, December 2012
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    ...(1995).Powe, Lucas A., Jr. 2000. The Warren Court and American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.Republican Party of Minnesota v. White. 536 U.S. 765 (2002).Reynolds v. Sims. 377 U.S. 533 (1964).Rowland, C. K., and Robert A. Carp. 1996. Politics and Judg-ment in Federal District Courts. Lawr......
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    • American Politics Research Nbr. 43-2, March 2015
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    ...judicial election reforms: The views of the voters. Politics & Policy, 39, 223-250. Republican Party of Minnesota v. White (2002). 536 U.S. 765.Rock, E., & Baum, L. (2010). The impact of high visibility contests for U.S. state court judgeships: Partisan voting in nonpartisan elections. Stat......
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