Romer v. Evans

Decision Date20 May 1996
Docket Number941039
Citation134 L.Ed.2d 855,116 S.Ct. 1620,517 U.S. 620
PartiesROMER, GOVERNOR OF COLORADO, et al. v. EVANS et al. . Syllabus *
CourtU.S. Supreme Court

Certiorari to the Supreme Court of Colorado.

No. 94-1039.

Supreme Court of the United States

Syllabus *

Argued October 10, 1995

Decided May 20, 1996

After various Colorado municipalities passed ordinances banning discrimination based on sexual orientation in housing, employment, education, public accommodations, health and welfare services, and other transactions and activities, Colorado voters adopted by statewide referendum "Amendment 2" to the State Constitution, which precludes all legislative, executive, or judicial action at any level of state or local government designed to protect the status of persons based on their ``homosexual, lesbian or bisexual orientation, conduct, practices or relationships.'' Respondents, who include aggrieved homosexuals and municipalities, commenced this litigation in state court against petitioner state parties to declare Amendment 2 invalid and enjoin its enforcement. The trial court's grant of a preliminary injunction was sustained by the Colorado Supreme Court, which held that Amendment 2 was subject to strict scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment because it infringed the fundamental right of gays and lesbians to participate in the political process. On remand, the trial court found that the Amendment failed to satisfy strict scrutiny. It enjoined Amendment 2's enforcement, and the State Supreme Court affirmed.

Held: Amendment 2 violates the Equal Protection Clause. Pp. 4-14.

(a) The State's principal argument that Amendment 2 puts gays and lesbians in the same position as all other persons by denying them special rights is rejected as implausible. The extent of the change in legal status effected by this law is evident from the authoritative construction of Colorado's Supreme Court-which establishes that the amendment's immediate effect is to repeal all existing statutes, regulations, ordinances, and policies of state and local entities barring discrimination based on sexual orientation, and that its ultimate effect is to prohibit any governmental entity from adopting similar, or more protective, measures in the future absent state constitutional amendment-and from a review of the terms, structure, and operation of the ordinances that would be repealsed and prohibited by Amendment 2. Even if, as the State contends, homosexuals can find protection in laws and policies of general application, Amendment 2 goes well beyond merely depriving them of special rights. It imposes a broad disability upon those persons alone, forbidding them, but no others, to seek specific legal protection from injuries caused by discrimination in a wide range of public and private transactions. Pp. 4-9.

(b) In order to reconcile the Fourteenth Amendment's promise that no person shall be denied equal protection with the practical reality that most legislation classifies for one purpose or another, the Court has stated that it will uphold a law that neither burdens a fundamental right nor targets a suspect class so long as the legislative classification bears a rational relation to some independent and legitimate legislative end. See, e.g., Heller v. Doe, 509 U. S. 312, 319-320. Amendment 2 fails, indeed defies, even this conventional inquiry. First, the amendment is at once too narrow and too broad, identifying persons by a single trait and then denying them the possibility of protection across the board. This disqualification of a class of persons from the right to obtain specific protection from the law is unprecedented and is itself a denial of equal protection in the most literal sense. Second, the sheer breadth of Amendment 2, which makes a general announcement that gays and lesbians shall not have any particular protections from the law, is so far removed from the reasons offered for it, i.e., respect for other citizens' freedom of association, particularly landlords or employers who have personal or religious objections to homosexuality, and the State's interest in conserving resources to fight discrimination against other groups, that the amendment cannot be explained by reference to those reasons; the Amendment raises the inevitable inference that it is born of animosity toward the class that it affects. Amendment 2 cannot be said to be directed to an identifiable legitimate purpose or discrete objective. It is a status-based classification of persons undertaken for its own sake, something the Equal Protection Clause does not permit. Pp. 9-14.

882 P. 2d 1335, affirmed.

Kennedy, J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which Stevens, O'Connor, Souter, Ginsburg, and Breyer, JJ., joined. Scalia, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which Rehnquist, C. J., and Thomas, J., joined.

Justice Kennedy delivered the opinion of the Court.

One century ago, the first Justice Harlan admonished this Court that the Constitution "neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens." Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U. S. 537, 559 (1896) (dissenting opinion). Unheeded then, those words now are understood to state a commitment to the law's neutrality where the rights of persons are at stake. The Equal Protection Clause enforces this principle and today requires us to hold invalid a provision of Colorado's Constitution.


The enactment challenged in this case is an amendment to the Constitution of the State of Colorado, adopted in a 1992 statewide referendum. The parties and the state courts refer to it as "Amendment 2," its designation when submitted to the voters. The impetus for the amendment and the contentious campaign that preceded its adoption came in large part from ordinances that had been passed in various Colorado municipalities. For example, the cities of Aspen and Boulder and the City and County of Denver each had enacted ordinances which banned discrimination in many transactions and activities, including housing, employment, education, public accommodations, and health and welfare services. Denver Rev. Municipal Code, Art. IV Section(s) 28-91 to 28-116 (1991); Aspen Municipal Code Section(s) 13-98 (1977); Boulder Rev. Code Section(s) 12-1-1 to 12-1-11 (1987). What gave rise to the statewide controversy was the protection the ordinances afforded to persons discriminated against by reason of their sexual orientation. See Boulder Rev. Code Section(s) 12-1-1 (defining "sexual orientation" as "the choice of sexual partners, i.e., bisexual, homosexual or heterosexual"); Denver Rev. Municipal Code, Art. IV Section(s) 28-92 (defining "sexual orientation" as "[t]he status of an individual as to his or her heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality"). Amendment 2 repeals these ordinances to the extent they prohibit discrimination on the basis of "homosexual, lesbian or bisexual orientation, conduct, practices or relationships." Colo. Const., Art. II, Section(s) 30b.

Yet Amendment 2, in explicit terms, does more than repeal or rescind these provisions. It prohibits all legislative, executive or judicial action at any level of state or local government designed to protect the named class, a class we shall refer to as homosexual persons or gays and lesbians. The amendment reads:

"No Protected Status Based on Homosexual, Lesbian, or Bisexual Orientation. Neither the State of Colorado, through any of its branches or departments, nor any of its agencies, political subdivisions, municipalities or school districts, shall enact, adopt or enforce any statute, regulation, ordinance or policy whereby homosexual, lesbian or bisexual orientation, conduct, practices or relationships shall constitute or otherwise be the basis of or entitle any person or class of persons to have or claim any minority status, quota preferences, protected status or claim of discrimination. This Section of the Constitution shall be in all respects self-executing." Ibid.

Soon after Amendment 2 was adopted, this litigation to declare its invalidity and enjoin its enforcement was commenced in the District Court for the City and County of Denver. Among the plaintiffs (respondents here) were homosexual persons, some of them government employees. They alleged that enforcement of Amendment 2 would subject them to immediate and substantial risk of discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation. Other plaintiffs (also respondents here) included the three municipalities whose ordinances we have cited and certain other governmental entities which had acted earlier to protect homosexuals from discrimination but would be prevented by Amendment 2 from continuing to do so. Although Governor Romer had been on record opposing the adoption of Amendment 2, he was named in his official capacity as a defendant, together with the Colorado Attorney General and the State of Colorado.

The trial court granted a preliminary injunction to stay enforcement of Amendment 2, and an appeal was taken to the Supreme Court of Colorado. Sustaining the interim injunction and remanding the case for further proceedings, the State Supreme Court held that Amendment 2 was subject to strict scrutiny under the Fourteenth Amendment because it infringed the fundamental right of gays and lesbians to participate in the political process. Evans v. Romer, 854 P. 2d 1270 (Colo. 1993) (Evans I). To reach this conclusion, the state court relied on our voting rights cases, e.g., Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U. S. 533 (1964); Carrington v. Rash, 380 U. S. 89 (1965); Harper v. Virginia Bd. of Elections, 383 U. S. 663 (1966); Williams v. Rhodes, 393 U. S. 23 (1968), and on our precedents involving discriminatory restructuring of governmental decisionmaking, see, e.g., Hunter v. Erickson, 393 U. S. 385 (1969); Reitman v. Mulkey, 387 U. S. 369 (1967); Washington v. Seattle School Dist. No. 1, 458 U. S. 457 (1982); Gordon v. Lance, 403 U. S. 1 (1971). On remand, the State advanced various arguments in an effort to show that Amendment 2 was narrowly tailored...

To continue reading

Request your trial
1302 cases
  • Hodgkins v. Peterson
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — Southern District of Indiana
    • 6 d2 Novembro d2 2001
    ...government interest. See, e.g., Vacco v. Quill, 521 U.S. 793, 799, 117 S.Ct. 2293, 138 L.Ed.2d 834 (1997); Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620, 631, 116 S.Ct. 1620, 134 L.Ed.2d 855 (1996); Vance v. Bradley, 440 U.S. 93, 97, 99 S.Ct. 939, 59 L.Ed.2d 171 (1979); Zehner v. Trigg, 133 F.3d 459, 463 (7......
  • Rogers v. Giurbino
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — Southern District of California
    • 11 d3 Julho d3 2007
    ...classifies for one purpose or another, with resulting disadvantage to various groups or persons." Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620, 631, 116 S.Ct. 1620, 134 L.Ed.2d 855 (1996); Personnel Administrator of Mass. v. Feeney, 442 U.S. 256, 271-272, 99 S.Ct. 2282, 60 L.Ed.2d 870 (1979). If a law neit......
  • in re Cantos Y.
    • United States
    • California Court of Appeals Court of Appeals
    • 19 d5 Outubro d5 2001 economic regulation and other classifications in which the conditions for the higher levels of review are absent. (Romer v. Evans (1996) 517 U.S. 620, 631.) They rely on Morton v. Mancari (1974) 417 U.S. 535 (Mancari), which involved a Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) preference in employm......
  • Motley v. Taylor
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — Middle District of Alabama
    • 31 d2 Março d2 2020
    ..."that fee requirements ordinarily are examined only for rationality." Id. at 123, 117 S.Ct. 555 ; see also Romer v. Evans , 517 U.S. 620, 631, 116 S.Ct. 1620, 134 L.Ed.2d 855 (1996) ("[I]f a law neither burdens a fundamental right nor targets a suspect class, we will uphold the legislative ......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
1 firm's commentaries
  • Same-Sex Marriage And The Anticipated Supreme Court Ruling
    • United States
    • Mondaq United States
    • 29 d1 Junho d1 2015
    ...Justice Kennedy first emerged as the Court's swing vote and leading explicator of these issues in Romer v. Evans. Romer, 517 U.S. at 635, 116 S.Ct. 1620 (holding that Colorado's constitutional amendment prohibiting all legislative, executive, or judicial action designed to protect homosexua......
133 books & journal articles
  • When a Prison Sentence Becomes Unconstitutional
    • United States
    • Georgetown Law Journal No. 111-2, December 2022
    • 1 d4 Dezembro d4 2022
    ...judicial review to protect constitutional rights, is not reviewable for a simple abuse of discretion.”). 270. See, e.g. , Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620, 632 (1996); Cleburne , 473 U.S at 448. 271. This approach, it bears noting, is symmetrical. If a court had cause to believe that the prosec......
  • The Legal Status of Conversion Therapy
    • United States
    • Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law No. XXII-1, October 2020
    • 1 d4 Outubro d4 2020
    ...basis.181Others argue that Masterpiece only con-cerns animus in adjudicative proceedings. A complete analysis of these cases or of175. 517 U.S. 620 (1996).176. 539 U.S. 558 (2003).177. 570 U.S. 744 (2013).178. 576 U.S. 644 (2015).179. Boy Scouts of Am., Inc. v. Dale, 530 U.S. 640, 661 (2000......
  • Package bombs, footlockers, and laptops: what the disappearing Container Doctrine can tell us about the Fourth Amendment.
    • United States
    • Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Vol. 100 No. 4, September 2010
    • 22 d3 Setembro d3 2010
    ...of Ret. v. Murgia, 427 U.S. 307, 314 (1976) (refusing to apply heightened scrutiny to classification based on age). (433) Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620, 631 (1996); see also City of Cleburne, 473 U.S. at 440 ("The general rule is that [such] legislation is presumed to be valid and will be su......
  • The Ideology of Supreme Court Opinions and Citations
    • United States
    • Iowa Law Review No. 97-3, March 2012
    • 1 d4 Março d4 2012
    ...442 (1996) Seminole Tribe of Fla. v. Florida, 517 U.S. 44 (1996) 44 Liquormart, Inc. v. Rhode Island, 517 U.S. 484 (1996) Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996) Shaw v. Hunt, 517 U.S. 899 (1996) Bush v. Vera, 517 U.S. 952 (1996) United States v. Virginia, 518 U.S. 515 (1996) Felker v. Turpin, ......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT