State v. Atwood, No. CR-87-0135-AP

CourtSupreme Court of Arizona
Writing for the CourtFELDMAN; CORCORAN
Citation171 Ariz. 576,832 P.2d 593
Decision Date09 April 1992
Docket NumberNo. CR-87-0135-AP
PartiesSTATE of Arizona, Appellee, v. Frank Jarvis ATWOOD, Appellant.

Page 593

832 P.2d 593
171 Ariz. 576
STATE of Arizona, Appellee,
v.
Frank Jarvis ATWOOD, Appellant.
No. CR-87-0135-AP.
Supreme Court of Arizona, In Banc.
April 9, 1992.
As Modified on Denial of Motions for
Reconsideration and Rehearing
July 10, 1992.

Page 605

Grant Woods, Atty. Gen. by Bruce M. Ferg, Asst. Atty. Gen., Tucson, for appellee.

Carla G. Ryan, Tucson, for appellant.

 TABLE OF CONTENTS
                DISPOSITION ........................ 591
                ISSUES PRESENTED ON DIRECT APPEAL .. 591
                ISSUES PRESENTED ON CROSS-APPEAL ... 592
                THE LENGTH OF THIS OPINION ......... 592
                FACTS .............................. 592
                I. The Disappearance ............ 592
                II. The Preliminary Investigation 592
                III. The Suspect .................. 593
                IV. The Arrest ................... 593
                V. The Charges Against Defendant ....................................... 594
                VI. The Case Against Defendant .......................................... 594
                 A. The Sightings ................................................. 595
                 B. The Scientific Evidence ....................................... 595
                 C. The Defendant's Actions and Statements ........................ 595
                 D. The Evidence of Motive ........................................ 596
                

DISCUSSION OF ISSUES PRESENTED ON DIRECT APPEAL

1. Sufficiency of Evidence to Support the Convictions .................. 596
                 A. The Kidnapping ................................................ 597
                 B. The Murder .................................................... 598
                2. Alleged Ineffective Assistance of Counsel ........................... 599
                3. Eyewitness Identifications .......................................... 602
                 A. Media Exposure ................................................ 602
                 B. Other Pretrial Viewings ....................................... 603
                4. Denial of Exhumation ................................................ 604
                5. Alleged Prosecutorial and Police Misconduct ......................... 605
                 A. Alleged Investigative Misconduct
                 1. Burial of Victim's Remains ............................. 605
                 2. Police Investigation ................................... 605
                 3. The "Cuckoo File" ...................................... 606
                 B. Alleged Misconduct Before the Grand Jury ...................... 607
                 C. Alleged Prosecutorial Contact with the Media .................. 607
                 D. Alleged Trial Misconduct ...................................... 608
                 1. Witness's Reference to Polygraph ....................... 608
                 2. Emotional Witness ...................................... 609
                 3. Testimony of Victim's Mother ........................... 609
                 4. Testimony Concerning Underpants Found Near Victim's
                 Remains .............................................. 609
                 5. Comments Made by Prosecutor ............................ 610
                6. Consolidation and Severance ......................................... 611
                7. Defendant's Arrest, Detention and Interrogation, and the Searches
                 of Defendant's Car
                 A. The Arrest .................................................... 613
                 B. The Detention and Interrogation ............................... 615
                 C. The Searches .................................................. 616
                 1. The First Search ....................................... 616
                 2. The Second Search ...................................... 618
                 D. Defendant's Statements to the FBI ............................. 618
                8. Defendant's Motion for Continuance .................................. 620
                9. Jury Selection ...................................................... 621
                10. "Death Qualification" of Jury ....................................... 624
                11. Jury Instructions ................................................... 624
                 A. Kidnapping Instruction ........................................ 624
                 B. Felony Murder Instruction ..................................... 625
                 C. Unanimous Verdict Instruction ................................. 625
                 D. Denial of Willits Instructions ................................ 626
                 E. Denial of Unlawful Imprisonment Instruction ................... 628
                 F. Denial of Instructions on Lesser Included Offenses of First
                 Degree Murder ............................................... 629
                12, 13 and 14. Publicity and the Jury ..................................... 630
                15. Publicity and Fair Trial ............................................ 630
                16. Courtroom Decorum ................................................... 633
                17. Evidentiary Rulings ................................................. 634
                 A. Defendant's Statements
                 1. Defendant's Story ...................................... 635
                 2. Defendant's Statement on the Telephone ................. 636
                 B.
                 Defendant's Letter and Statements to Ernest Bernsienne 637
                 C.
                 Testimony of Paul Larmour 639
                 D.
                 Testimony of Sam Hall 640
                 E.
                 Limitation on Cross-Examination of James Corby 640
                 F.
                 Admission of Defendant's Knives 641
                 G.
                 Admission of Underpants 642
                 H.
                 Videotapes of Defendant in Custody 643
                18. The Death Sentence .................................................. 645
                 A. Constitutionality of Arizona's Death Penalty Statute .......... 646
                 B. Defendant's 1975 Conviction for Lewd and Lascivious Conduct
                 as an Aggravating Circumstance .............................. 646
                 C. The Trial Court's Finding of No Mitigating Circumstances
                 under A.R.S. § 13-703(G) .................................... 648
                 1. The Trial Court's Felony Murder Instruction ........... 648
                 a. The Felony Murder Instruction ..................... 648
                 b. The Trial Judge's Failure to Make Specific
                 Enmund/McDaniel Findings ........................ 649
                 2. Defendant's Heavy Drug Use ............................. 650
                 3. Defendant's Demeanor During Trial ...................... 651
                 4. Defendant's Parents' Support ........................... 652
                 5. The Cause of the Victim's Death Was Not Established .... 652
                 6. Defendant's Age ........................................ 652
                 7. Lingering Doubt of Guilt ............................... 653
                 8. Defendant's Cooperation at the Time of His Arrest ...... 653
                 9. Defendant's Sympathy for the Victim's Family ........... 653
                 10. Defendant's I.Q......................................... 653
                 11. Defendant's Concern for His Parents .................... 654
                 12. Defendant's Lack of a Violent Prior Record ............. 654
                 13. Defendant's Not Causing His Prior Felonies ............. 655
                 14. Defendant's Adjustment to Incarceration andHis
                 Adoption of New Goals ................................ 655
                 D. Victim Impact Evidence ........................................ 655
                 E. Conclusion .................................................... 657
                19. The Kidnapping Sentence ............................................. 657
                20. Computerization of the Record ....................................... 657
                21. Limitation on Length of Defendant's Opening Brief ................... 658
                DISCUSSION OF ISSUES PRESENTED ON CROSS-APPEAL ............................ 659
                22. The Informant's Testimony ........................................... 659
                23. The Especially Heinous, Cruel, or Depraved Aggravating Circumstance . 660
                24. The Rule in Gillies ................................................. 660
                CONCLUSION ................................................................ 660
                SPECIAL CONCURRENCE by Chief Justice Feldman .............................. 660
                SPECIAL CONCURRENCE by Justice Corcoran ................................... 660
                I. The Enmund/McDaniel Finding ......................................... 660
                II. The Kidnapping Sentence ............................................. 661
                III. The Informant's Testimony ........................................... 663
                 A. The Facts Surrounding Defendant's Incarceration, the Dates on
                 Which the State Charged Defendant with Kidnapping and
                 Murder, and the Trial Court's Ruling on Defendant's Motion
                 to Suppress the Informant's Testimony
                 1. The Facts and the Dates ................................ 663
                 2. The Trial Court's Ruling ............................... 665
                 B. The Scope of the Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel and the
                 Remedy for its Violation
                 1. The Right to Counsel ................................... 666
                 2. The Exclusionary Rule .................................. 667
                 C. Did the Trial Court Err in Excluding The Informant's
                 Testimony During the Guilt Proceedings Against Defendant? ... 667
                 1. The Informant as a State Agent ......................... 668
                 2. Defendant's Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel ........... 668
                 3. The Exclusionary Rule .................................. 668
                 D. Did the Trial Court Err in Excluding The Informant's
                 Testimony During the Sentencing Proceedings Against
                 Defendant as to the Murder Charge? .......................... 669
                IV. Double Jeopardy Issues in the Event of Resentencing ................. 672
                V. CONCLUSION .......................................................... 672
                 OPINION
                 CORCORAN, Justice.
                

Appellant Frank Jarvis Atwood (defendant) was convicted by a jury of kidnapping and first degree felony murder. The court sentenced him to concurrent sentences of life imprisonment without possibility of parole for 25 years for the kidnapping conviction and death for the murder conviction. He now appeals his convictions and sentences. We have jurisdiction pursuant to Ariz. Const. art. 6, § 5(3), and A.R.S. §§ 13-4031, -4033, and -4035.

DISPOSITION

Based on our analysis below, we affirm defendant's kidnapping conviction and sentence. We also affirm defendant's first degree murder conviction and death sentence.

ISSUES PRESENTED ON DIRECT APPEAL

Defendant has raised 21 issues on appeal. Several of these issues are comprised of subordinate issues that are not listed below, but are discussed in relevant portions of this opinion. The principal issues on appeal are:

Evidence Supporting Conviction

1. Were the murder and kidnapping convictions supported by sufficient evidence?

Pretrial Issues

2. Was defendant denied effective assistance of counsel during the pretrial stage of his prosecution by actions or omissions...

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363 practice notes
  • Nevarez v. Ryan, CV-13-2286-PHX-DLR (JFM)
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. District of Arizona
    • December 5, 2014
    ...to affect a grand jury's charging decision—is rendered harmless by the trial jury's subsequent guilty verdict." State v. Atwood, 171 Ariz. 576, 601, 832 P.2d 593, 618 (1992), disapproved of other grounds by State v. Nordstrom, 200 Ariz. 229, 25 P.3d 717 (2001) (citing United States v. Mecha......
  • State v. Brown, No. 2 CA-CR 2015-0154
    • United States
    • Arizona Court of Appeals
    • August 11, 2016
    ...could have affected the jury's verdict.'" State v. Moody, 208 Ariz. 424, ¶ 145, 94 P.3d 1119, 1154 (2004), quoting State v. Atwood, 171 Ariz. 576, 606, 832 P.2d 593, 623 (1992), disapproved on other grounds by State v. Nordstrom, 200 Ariz. 229, ¶ 25, 25 P.3d 717, 729 (2001). If Brown failed......
  • The State Of Ariz. v. Tamplin, 2 CA-CR 2009-0297 DEPARTMENT B
    • United States
    • Court of Appeals of Arizona
    • November 29, 2010
    ...permeates the entire atmosphere of the trial.'" State v. Hughes, 193 Ariz. 72, ¶ 26, 969 P.2d 1184, 1191 (1998), quoting State v. Atwood, 171 Ariz. 576, 611, 832 P.2d 593, 628 (1992), overruled in part on other grounds by State v. Nordstrom, 200 Ariz. 229, ¶ 25, 25 P.3d 717, 729 (2001); see......
  • Alvarado v. State, No. 71779
    • United States
    • Court of Appeals of Texas. Court of Criminal Appeals of Texas
    • November 15, 1995
    ...(Victim impact evidence is not admissible under Georgia capital sentencing statute as an aggravating factor.); and, State v. Atwood, 171 Ariz. 576, 656-57, 832 P.2d 593, 673-674 (1992) (Victim impact evidence is not admissible under Arizona capital punishment statute because it does not ten......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
362 cases
  • Nevarez v. Ryan, CV-13-2286-PHX-DLR (JFM)
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. United States District Courts. 9th Circuit. District of Arizona
    • December 5, 2014
    ...to affect a grand jury's charging decision—is rendered harmless by the trial jury's subsequent guilty verdict." State v. Atwood, 171 Ariz. 576, 601, 832 P.2d 593, 618 (1992), disapproved of other grounds by State v. Nordstrom, 200 Ariz. 229, 25 P.3d 717 (2001) (citing United States v. Mecha......
  • State v. Brown, No. 2 CA-CR 2015-0154
    • United States
    • Arizona Court of Appeals
    • August 11, 2016
    ...could have affected the jury's verdict.'" State v. Moody, 208 Ariz. 424, ¶ 145, 94 P.3d 1119, 1154 (2004), quoting State v. Atwood, 171 Ariz. 576, 606, 832 P.2d 593, 623 (1992), disapproved on other grounds by State v. Nordstrom, 200 Ariz. 229, ¶ 25, 25 P.3d 717, 729 (2001). If Brown failed......
  • The State Of Ariz. v. Tamplin, 2 CA-CR 2009-0297 DEPARTMENT B
    • United States
    • Court of Appeals of Arizona
    • November 29, 2010
    ...permeates the entire atmosphere of the trial.'" State v. Hughes, 193 Ariz. 72, ¶ 26, 969 P.2d 1184, 1191 (1998), quoting State v. Atwood, 171 Ariz. 576, 611, 832 P.2d 593, 628 (1992), overruled in part on other grounds by State v. Nordstrom, 200 Ariz. 229, ¶ 25, 25 P.3d 717, 729 (2001); see......
  • Alvarado v. State, No. 71779
    • United States
    • Court of Appeals of Texas. Court of Criminal Appeals of Texas
    • November 15, 1995
    ...(Victim impact evidence is not admissible under Georgia capital sentencing statute as an aggravating factor.); and, State v. Atwood, 171 Ariz. 576, 656-57, 832 P.2d 593, 673-674 (1992) (Victim impact evidence is not admissible under Arizona capital punishment statute because it does not ten......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

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