State v. Discoe

Decision Date12 May 1983
Docket NumberCr. N
Citation334 N.W.2d 466
PartiesSTATE of North Dakota, Plaintiff and Appellant, v. Randall A. DISCOE, Defendant and Appellee. o. 890.
CourtNorth Dakota Supreme Court

John P. Van Grinsven III, Asst. State's Atty., Minot, for plaintiff and appellant State of North Dakota.

Donald L. Peterson, of McGee, Hankla, Backes & Wheeler, Minot, for defendant and appellee.

VANDE WALLE, Justice.

The State appealed from an order of the district court of Ward County suppressing (1) a statement made by Randall A. Discoe to police officers while being questioned at the Minot police station and (2) evidence obtained from the trunk of Discoe's car following a consent to search. In its order, the trial court held that both the confession and the consent to search were involuntary. We affirm.

Essentially one issue is raised by the State in its appeal from the trial court's order: namely, did the trial court err in granting Discoe's motion to suppress the statement in question and in vitiating Discoe's consent to search his car? 1

The central issue in a case challenging the validity of a confession is whether or not the confession was made voluntarily. Culombe v. Connecticut, 367 U.S. 568, 81 S.Ct. 1860, 6 L.Ed.2d 1037 (1961); State v. Nagel, 75 N.D. 495, 28 N.W.2d 665 (1947). Likewise, when the validity of a consent to search is called into question, the trial court must satisfy itself that the consent was given voluntarily before it can permit the use of evidence obtained from the search against the accused at trial. Schneckloth v. Bustamonte, 412 U.S. 218, 93 S.Ct. 2041, 36 L.Ed.2d 854 (1973); State v. Lange, 255 N.W.2d 59 (N.D.1977). And the way in which the trial court is to make its determination on the issue of voluntariness is by examining the totality of the circumstances which surround the giving of a confession or consent to a search to see whether it is the product of an essentially free choice or the product of coercion. Schneckloth, supra; State v. Carlson, 318 N.W.2d 308 (N.D.1982), cert. denied --- U.S. ----, 103 S.Ct. 456, 74 L.Ed.2d 609 (1982); State v. Roquette, 290 N.W.2d 260 (N.D.1980); Lange, supra.

Under a "totality of the circumstances" standard, although the existence or absence of certain factors concerning (1) the characteristics and condition of the accused at the time he confessed or consented and (2) the details of the setting in which the consent or confession was obtained are significant in deciding voluntariness, no one factor in and of itself is determinative. Schneckloth, supra; State v. Munro, 295 N.W.2d 437 (Iowa 1980); Barrera v. State, 99 Wis.2d 269, 298 N.W.2d 820 (1980), cert. denied 451 U.S. 972, 101 S.Ct. 2051, 68 L.Ed.2d 352 (1981).

Usually the circumstances which attend the giving of a confession or a consent are not completely agreed upon by law-enforcement officials and the accused; hence, the trial judge often must decide between conflicting evidence to form a picture in his own mind of the "totality of the circumstances." Recognizing that a trial court is in a much better position to judge the credibility of witnesses and the weight to be given their testimony, we show great deference on appeal to the trial court's determination of voluntariness by refusing to reverse its decision unless it is contrary to the manifest weight of the evidence. Carlson, supra; Roquette, supra; State v. Thompson, 256 N.W.2d 706 (N.D.1977). See also Walker v. State, 386 So.2d 762 (Ala.Cr.App.1980); People v. Aldridge, 37 Ill.Dec. 286, 79 Ill.2d 87, 402 N.E.2d 176 (1980); People v. Martin, 99 Mich.App. 570, 297 N.W.2d 718 (1980). The trial court's disposition of a motion to suppress will not be reversed if, after conflicts in the testimony are resolved in favor of affirmance [ People v. Rodriguez, 117 Cal.App.3d 706, 173 Cal.Rptr. 82 (1981); State v. Baker, 4 Kan.App.2d 340, 606 P.2d 120 (1980); State v. Shaffer, 96 Wis.2d 531, 292 N.W.2d 370 (1980); State v. Hockings, 86 Wis.2d 709, 273 N.W.2d 339 (1979); Norwood v. State, 74 Wis.2d 343, 246 N.W.2d 801 (1976), cert. denied 430 U.S. 949, 97 S.Ct. 1589, 51 L.Ed.2d 798 (1977) ], there is sufficient competent evidence fairly capable of supporting the trial court's determination. See United States v. Valle, 644 F.2d 374 (8th Cir.1981); Nelson v. State, 398 So.2d 421 (Ala.Cr.App.1981); People v. Traubert, 199 Colo. 322, 608 P.2d 342 (1980); People v. Scott, 198 Colo. 371, 600 P.2d 68 (1979); State v. Greene, 91 N.M. 207, 572 P.2d 935 (1977); People v. Chaffee, 55 A.D.2d 736, 389 N.Y.S.2d 168 (1976).

We now turn to an examination of the entire record to see if there is sufficient evidence to support the trial court's conclusion that Discoe's confession and consent to search were not given voluntarily.

Discoe's first contact with the police occurred in the early morning hours of March 11, 1982, when he was stopped for speeding and subsequently arrested for driving a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol. Before going to the police station, Discoe was taken to a local military hospital to receive treatment for a cut on his hand which he said had been inflicted by a hitchhiker in a struggle after the hitchhiker had pulled a knife on him. Following his processing at the police station for drunk driving, Discoe was released from custody on bond, but because his car had been impounded he had to hitchhike to his home at the Minot Air Force Base where he was stationed on active duty. Once at home, Discoe had something to eat, got cleaned up, and hitchhiked back to town to get his car out of the impound lot.

In the meantime, the police had investigated a complaint by Larry Stapleton that a burglary had occurred in his home sometime during the previous night in which stereo equipment and a television set were taken. Apparently the burglar had gained access to Stapleton's home by breaking a window in the entrance door.

As it turned out, Stapleton was acquainted with Discoe, who had been a guest in his home, and after discovering bloodstains on the broken glass from the entrance door and hearing that Discoe had received a cut on his hand the same night as the burglary, he surmised that Discoe might have been the burglar.

When the police learned of Stapleton's suspicions, they had a hold placed on Discoe's car. Consequently, once Discoe arrived at the impound lot to get his car, he was informed that his car could not be released without police authorization, which was being withheld. Discoe called the police to inquire why there was a hold on his car and he was told that they wanted to talk to him. Discoe stated that he had no means of getting to the police station, but the officer he was talking to said that a patrol car would be sent to give him a ride.

Prior experience of the accused with the police is a factor which has been considered in deciding the issue of voluntariness. E.g., Barrera, supra. It is undisputed that Discoe had no past involvement with law-enforcement officials. This circumstance is significant when taking into account that the police did not assert a lawful basis for placing a hold on Discoe's car. The police say that Discoe was simply requested to go to the police station to have a talk with them and that Discoe was not at that time told he was under arrest or could not leave; yet, Officer Nevland, who primarily questioned Discoe, testified that the hold on Discoe's car would not have been released until they had interviewed him. Thus Discoe was in the position of having to go to the police station and deal with the police before he could get his car from the impound lot.

Upon his arrival at the police station, Discoe was questioned regarding his previous statement of how his hand had been cut by a hitchhiker. Expressing disbelief in Discoe's statement, Officer Nevland informed Discoe of his constitutional rights and proceeded to question him on the subject of the burglary at Stapleton's residence. This questioning produced a different statement from Discoe: Discoe admitted knowledge of the burglary; he said he owed two men some money, and in exchange for cancellation of the debt, he took them to Stapleton's home where they, without his active participation, forcibly entered the home and removed the stereo equipment and television set.

Nevland again told Discoe he didn't believe him. The officers involved in the questioning then stated they had fingerprints and a blood sample, apparently from the broken glass, which they thought were his. Discoe testified he became panicky and gave the officers yet another statement in which he confessed burglarizing the Stapleton home and placing the stolen articles in the trunk of his car. Along with this final statement, Discoe consented to the search of his car which was conducted a short while later with Discoe's cooperation and aid. Stapleton's stereo equipment and television set were found in the trunk of Discoe's car.

In its order suppressing Discoe's confession and vitiating the consent to search his car, the trial court found from the evidence presented at the suppression hearing:

"I.

"That at the time of the interview on the morning in question, Defendant had been awake for well over 24 hours.

"II.

"That Defendant had participated in substantial drinking prior to being questioned.

"III.

"That at all times in question the Defendant was in some pain as a result of a laceration to one of his hands.

"IV.

"That the interview was conducted at the Minot Police Department in the presence of several officers, some of whom were uniformed, and although Defendant perhaps voluntarily came to the police station, he was not prepared to embark on an interview at that time, but was attempting to retrieve his vehicle.

"V.

"During this time it was apparent that the Defendant was suffering from the after-effects of drinking.

"VI.

"Defendant was tired, and his freedom was restricted by the lack of availability of a vehicle.

"VII.

"... He was never told that he could...

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    • September 15, 2016
    ...the place apart, it is for the district court to weigh the evidence and determine the credibility of the witnesses. See State v. Discoe, 334 N.W.2d 466, 468 (N.D.1983) (recognizing that a district court is in a superior position to determine the weight to give a witness's testimony). The di......
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    ...of voluntariness by refusing to reverse its decision unless it is contrary to the manifest weight of the evidence. State v. Discoe, 334 N.W.2d 466 (N.D.1983).”Fossum, at ¶ 13 (quoting State v. Anderson, 336 N.W.2d 634, 639 (N.D.1983)). A person does not consent by merely acquiescing to a cl......
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