State v. Mubita, 33252.

CourtUnited States State Supreme Court of Idaho
Citation145 Idaho 925,188 P.3d 867
Docket NumberNo. 33252.,33252.
PartiesSTATE of Idaho, Plaintiff-Respondent, v. Kanay Aongola MUBITA, Defendant-Appellant.
Decision Date11 June 2008

Molly J. Huskey, State Appellate Public Defender, Boise, for appellant. Elizabeth Ann Allred argued.

Honorable Lawrence G. Wasden, Attorney General, Boise, for respondent. Daniel W. Bower argued.

J. JONES, Justice.

A jury convicted Kanay Mubita on eleven counts of transferring body fluid which may contain the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), pursuant to I.C. § 39-608. The district court imposed a unified sentence of four years, with four months fixed, for each count, to be served consecutively. Mubita appealed to this Court, asserting: the district court erred when it denied his motion to suppress certain medical records; the district court erred when it admitted two laboratory reports concerning his HIV status; it is factually impossible to violate the purposes of I.C. § 39-608 through oral-genital contact; and the district court's jury instruction pertaining to his affirmative defense was improper and violative of his right to due process. We affirm.


Kanay Mubita immigrated to the United States from Zambia, Africa, and relocated in Moscow, Idaho. As part of an immigration physical, Dr. Larry Dean Harries executed an Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) form on April 30, 2001, indicating that Mubita tested negative for the HIV antibody. Dr. Harries conducted this examination as part of a three-part examination, the results of which were to be forwarded in a sealed envelope to the INS.1 Pursuant to the INS procedure, Dr. Harries sent the results in the sealed envelope to Mubita. The instructions included with the forms direct that the patient keep the envelope sealed and forward it directly to the INS. Dr. Harries testified at trial that he never directly informed Mubita his test results were negative for the HIV antibody.

On December 26, 2001, Mubita accompanied his then-wife to a hospital in Pullman, Washington, and submitted to another HIV test. This test came back with a positive result. Dr. Timothy Moody informed Mubita of these results by telephone and arranged a second test to determine the progression of the virus. In January 2002, Mubita submitted to the follow-up test, which also produced a positive result for HIV antibodies. Dr. Moody reported Mubita's positive HIV test results to the Whitman County (Washington) Public Health Department.

Following these test results, Mubita requested services from the North Central District Health Department (Health Department) in Moscow, Idaho, and began receiving HIV-related services. In order to receive these services, Mubita had to show he was in fact HIV positive. The first face-to-face meeting between Mubita and his caseworker, Jenny Ruppel, occurred on January 17, 2002.2 As part of the intake process, Mubita executed a number of documents in January and February 2002, certifying his HIV positive status, including a Ryan White Care Act Intake Form, and a Ryan White Title II Care Act Client Rights and Responsibilities form. The latter form indicates that a participant has the right to have information released only in the following circumstances: (a) when the participant signs a written release of information, (b) when there is a medical emergency, (c) when there is a clear and immediate danger to the participant or others, (d) when there is possible child or elder abuse, or (e) when ordered by a court of law. Mubita also signed a document containing the text of I.C. § 39-608 and stating that he had read and understood such law.3 Mubita executed a series of recertification forms, dated January 25, 2003, February 25, 2004, and January 11, 2005, all of which certify his HIV positive status. The record also contains an Authorization to Coordinate Services, executed by Mubita on July 30, 2002. This document provides, "[t]his authorization does not permit the release of any client records or files without my expressed written consent."

As part of the Health Department's HIV-related services, Ruppel helped Mubita gain financial assistance for transportation, housing, rental assistance and food. In addition, Ruppel helped Mubita set up doctor visits and obtain prescriptions. Specifically, Ruppel accompanied Mubita to see a doctor on May 11, 2005, and to consult a specialist in November 2005. Both doctors prescribed HIV medications for Mubita. Ruppel discussed the purpose, use, and function of these medications with Mubita. Ruppel testified at trial that she had had numerous discussions with Mubita regarding his HIV status during the time he utilized Health Department services. She testified that Mubita never said, or acted like, he didn't have HIV.

In early October 2005, someone notified the Latah County Prosecutor's Office that "a Moscow male who is HIV positive was believed to have had sexual activity with two women without informing them of his status."4 In response to this information, the prosecutor's office sent a letter to the Health Department, requesting disclosure of "whatever information your agency may possess in regard to an adult male resident of Latah County who has tested positive for the HIV virus and who is believed to have engaged in sexual activity with two females in violation of Idaho Code 39-608 ..." The letter indicated the request was made for "the purposes of a law enforcement investigation into whether a violation of I.C. § 39-608 has occurred." In addition, the prosecuting attorney requested whatever information the agency possessed regarding the identification of potential victims. The Health Department responded on October 17, 2005, attaching the documents at issue here.5 The prosecutor's office forwarded the information to the Moscow Police Department on December 5.

After receiving the information from the prosecutor's office, police officers contacted Mubita by telephone and asked him to come in for an interview. Mubita voluntarily went to the police station to talk with the officers on December 6, 2005. At the station, the officers informed Mubita that he was not under arrest and was free to leave at any time. During the interview, Mubita denied receiving any paperwork demonstrating his HIV positive status. Mubita admitted that he knew T.A., one of the suspected victims, and that he had had unprotected sexual intercourse with her. In addition, Mubita stated he believed her child was his. Mubita initially denied knowing another victim, E.C., but later admitted to knowing her through T.A. Mubita denied having sexual intercourse with E.C., stating that he only had sexual relations with T.A. and his wife. While watching the interview on a closed-circuit television system, Detective Kwiatkowski phoned the director of the Health Department to inquire about Mubita's HIV status. The director told him Mubita had been informed of his HIV status and had signed a number of documents acknowledging his status. At the interview, after Kwiatkowski showed him the documents from the Health Department, Mubita admitted to signing the documents. However, Mubita continued to deny having knowledge of his HIV status, stating that he was never given copies of the documents.

On December 7, Mubita called Ruppel. During the conversation, Ruppel became concerned for his well-being, and contacted the Moscow Police Department to request that it perform a welfare check. Kwiatkowski received the call and asked Ruppel whether Mubita was HIV positive and whether he knew of his HIV status prior to September 2004. Ruppel said he was HIV positive, that he had been told so numerous times, and that he had been receiving financial aid as a direct result of his HIV status. Three officers, one in uniform, went to Mubita's home to perform the welfare check after receiving the phone call from Ruppel. The officers knocked on the door and asked Mubita if they could come inside and talk. Mubita let them in the house. Kwiatkowski told Mubita he had spoken with Ruppel and that she was worried about his well-being. Mubita did not appear to be upset. Kwiatkowski informed Mubita he had talked to Ruppel about his HIV status, and asked whether he knew he was HIV positive. Mubita responded that he knew he was HIV positive. Based on the interview the night before, wherein he disclosed having unprotected sex with T.A., and the information from Ruppel, Kwiatkowski placed Mubita under arrest.

The police department subsequently issued a press release regarding the arrest, asking people who may have had sexual contact with Mubita to contact the department. The police department interviewed 13 potential victims from December 9 through December 30, 2005.

Mubita was charged with a total of eleven counts of violating I.C. § 39-608. Mubita pleaded not guilty to all counts. Prior to trial, Mubita filed two motions—a motion to change venue, which the district court denied,6 and a motion to suppress, which is at issue in this appeal. In his motion to suppress, Mubita sought suppression of any information or documents released by the Health Department, as well as any statements Mubita made to law enforcement officials. The district court denied his motion to suppress with regard to the information and documents released by the Health Department and the statements made to Kwiatkowski prior to his arrest, but granted the motion to suppress statements made during the booking process.

A trial was held in late March 2006, and the jury found Mubita guilty of all eleven counts. The district court imposed a unified sentence of four years, with four months fixed, for each count, to be served consecutively. Mubita filed a timely appeal.


The following issues are presented for determination: (1) whether the district court erred when it denied Mubita's motion to suppress documents released by the Health Department to the prosecutor's office; (2) whether the district...

To continue reading

Request your trial
31 cases
  • State v. Legrand, AC 30577
    • United States
    • Appellate Court of Connecticut
    • June 7, 2011
    ...are not justified in the circumstances or those made in an improper manner; it does not protect against all intrusions. State v. Mubita, 145 Idaho 925, 932, 188 P.3d 867 (2008). Our Supreme Court has explained that the fourth amendment protects against the unreasonable seizure of an individ......
  • State v. Pina, Docket No. 34192 (Idaho 3/18/2010), Docket No. 34192.
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court of Idaho
    • March 18, 2010 are in effect in Idaho only to the extent that they are not repugnant or inconsistent with legislative enactment."); State v. Mubita, 145 Idaho 925, 940, 188 P.3d 867, 882 (2008) ("Unless the result is palpably absurd, this Court assumes the legislature meant what is clearly stated in t......
  • Miller v. Idaho State Patrol, 37032.
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court of Idaho
    • May 18, 2011
    ...of the Idaho Constitution protect citizens' reasonable privacy expectations against unreasonable government intrusion. State v. Mubita, 145 Idaho 925, 932, 188 P.3d 867, 874 (2008). A warrantless search is presumptively unreasonable. State v. Weaver, 127 Idaho 288, 290, 900 P.2d 196, 198 (1......
  • Verska v. Saint Alphonsus Reg'l Med. Ctr., 37574–2010.
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court of Idaho
    • November 9, 2011
    ...Idaho 207, 192 P.3d 1031 (2008) ; State Dept. of Health and Welfare v. Hudelson, 146 Idaho 439, 196 P.3d 905 (2008) ; State v. Mubita, 145 Idaho 925, 188 P.3d 867 (2008) ; State v. Hensley, 145 Idaho 852, 187 P.3d 1227 (2008) ; In re Daniel W., 145 Idaho 677, 183 P.3d 765 (2008) ; Mattoon v......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT