U.S. ex rel. Teague v. Lane

Decision Date30 December 1985
Docket NumberNo. 84-2474,84-2474
Citation779 F.2d 1332
PartiesUNITED STATES of America, ex rel. Frank TEAGUE, Petitioner-Appellant, v. Michael P. LANE, Director, Department of Corrections and Michael O'Leary, Warden, Stateville Correctional Center, Respondents-Appellees.
CourtU.S. Court of Appeals — Seventh Circuit

Patricia Unsinn, Chicago, Ill., for petitioner-appellant.

Mark Rotert, Asst. Atty. Gen., Chicago, Ill., for respondents-appellees.



This case was argued on April 9, 1985 to a panel consisting of Judges Cudahy and Coffey, together with Senior Circuit Judge John W. Peck of the Sixth Circuit, sitting by designation.

Pursuant to Circuit Rule 16(e), the panel opinion in this case was circulated to all the judges of the court in regular active service. A majority of the judges in regular active service have voted to rehear this case en banc, the time of argument to be set at a date convenient to the court.

CUDAHY, Circuit Judge, dissenting.

This case involves the question whether the Constitution prohibits prosecutors from using their peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors exclusively on the basis of race. The matter was originally heard by a panel consisting of Judge Coffey, Senior Circuit Judge John W. Peck of the Sixth Circuit, sitting by designation, and me. The panel opinion, which I wrote, vacated and remanded on the grounds that the exercise of peremptory challenges by the prosecutor in this case violated, at least prima facie, the defendant's Sixth Amendment right to an impartial jury. The panel opinion, together with a dissent by Judge Coffey, was then circulated under our Circuit Rule 16 to the full court, which voted to rehear the matter en banc. I shall briefly outline here the essential content of the opinion of the panel majority to indicate why I believe that en banc review is unnecessary. Judge Peck has requested that I record his agreement with the views which follow.

Frank Teague, a black, was tried before a jury in an Illinois court and convicted of attempted murder and armed robbery. Each side had ten peremptory challenges and the state exercised all of its challenges to exclude black jurors. The defense also challenged one black, and there were no blacks on the resulting jury.

The defense moved for a mistrial, arguing that the state was denying Teague a trial by a jury of his peers by excluding potential jurors on the basis of race. These motions were denied. Although, as things now stand, a prosecutor need not defend his peremptory challenges, the state offered two rationales for its actions: that it was attempting to obtain a balance of men and women on the jury and that it had excused a number of young people. The Illinois Appellate Court noted that the record did not support the state's explanation but held that under existing law it could place no restriction on a prosecutor's use of his peremptory challenges.

The precise issue raised was whether a defendant's Sixth Amendment rights are violated when a prosecutor uses his peremptory challenges to exclude members of one race from a petit jury. Such a use is not a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, so long as the exclusion does not prevent members of a race from ever sitting on juries, "in case after case, whatever the circumstances, whatever the crime, and whoever the defendant or victim may be." Swain v. Alabama, 380 U.S. 202, 223, 85 S.Ct. 824, 837, 13 L.Ed.2d 759 (1965). Swain was clearly decided on equal protection grounds and, although the Court did not question the standing of the defendant Swain, the rights asserted and addressed by the Court were in large measure the rights of blacks who were prevented from serving as jurors. But the right to sit on a jury is quite distinct from the right of a defendant to be tried by a jury from which members of his race have not been systematically excluded.

The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees due process as well as equal protection, but at the time Swain was decided it was not yet settled which jury-trial rights were guaranteed by that amendment's due process clause. We now know that the Sixth Amendment applies fully to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment, Duncan v. Louisiana, 391 U.S. 145, 88 S.Ct. 1444, 20 L.Ed.2d 491 (1968); what has not been resolved is whether the Sixth Amendment guarantees the right to a jury from which eligible jurors have not been excluded because of their race. This question was raised but not decided in two recent cases in this circuit. See United States v. Clark, 737 F.2d 679 (7th Cir.1984) (facts of case failed to raise presumption of racial motivation); United States ex rel. Palmer v. DeRobertis, 738 F.2d 168 (7th Cir.), cert. denied, --- U.S. ----, 105 S.Ct. 306, 83 L.Ed.2d 241 (1984) (habeas petitioner waived objection by failing to raise it in state court). Other circuits have split on the question, compare Weathersby v. Morris, 708 F.2d 1493, 1497 (9th Cir.1983), and United States v. Childress, 715 F.2d 1313 (8th Cir.1983) (no Sixth Amendment right), with McCray v. Abrams, 750 F.2d 1113 (2d Cir.1984), and Booker v. Jabe, 775 F.2d 762 (6th Cir.1985), and the Supreme Court has heard oral argument on this question in an appeal from a state supreme court, Batson v. Kentucky, --- U.S. ----, 105 S.Ct. 2111, 85 L.Ed.2d 476 (1985).

As Judge Peck and I have viewed it, the question presents a clash between two devices, the peremptory challenge and the requirement of representativeness in the jury pool, both of which are intended to secure an impartial jury and neither of which we wanted to see destroyed. For the most part they do not conflict, but when they do, one must give way partially so that neither will be destroyed.

The Sixth Amendment guarantees that the jury pool from which a jury is selected must contain a representative cross-section of the community. Taylor v. Louisiana, 419 U.S. 522, 95 S.Ct. 692, 42 L.Ed.2d 690 (1975). The representativeness requirement does not extend directly to the petit jury--no defendant can demand a perfect cross-section on his jury--but the fact that there is not a direct connection does not mean that there is no connection at all. If the Sixth Amendment has implications for the jury pool, that can only be because it has some implication for the jury that actually sits at trial. In Williams v. Florida, 399 U.S. 78, 90 S.Ct. 1893, 26 L.Ed.2d 446 (1970), the Supreme Court held that a six-person jury was constitutionally acceptable, noting that a jury should be large enough "to promote group deliberation, free from outside attempts at intimidation, and to provide a fair possibility for obtaining a representative cross-section of the community." Id. at 100, 90 S.Ct. at 1906 (emphasis added). In Ballew v. Georgia, 435 U.S. 223, 98 S.Ct. 1029, 55 L.Ed.2d 234 (1978), it held that a five-person jury was not, expressing concern about "the ability of juries truly to represent the community as membership decreases below six."...

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5 cases
  • US ex rel. Yates v. Hardiman
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — Northern District of Illinois
    • March 20, 1987
    ...S.Ct. 306, 83 L.Ed.2d 241 (1984) (issue waived by habeas petitioner's failure to preserve it in the state court); see also Teague v. Lane, 779 F.2d 1332 (7th Cir.1985) (the issue reargued en banc and taken under advisement). The Eleventh Circuit has also declined to rule on the matter. Lind......
  • State v. Sanders
    • United States
    • United States State Supreme Court of Ohio
    • July 18, 2001
    ...See Williams v. Florida (1970), 399 U.S. 78, 100, 90 S.Ct. 1893, 1906, 26 L.Ed.2d 446, 460; United States ex rel. Teague v. Lane (C.A.7, 1985), 779 F.2d 1332, 1334 (Cudahy, J., dissenting). And he claims that the system used by the jury commissioner "precluded the possibility of securing a ......
  • Teague v. Lane, 84-2474
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (7th Circuit)
    • May 11, 1987
    ...the district court that denied the appellant Frank Teague's petition for a writ of habeas corpus was vacated, United States ex rel. Teague v. Lane, 779 F.2d 1332 (7th Cir.1985), and the case set for rehearing en banc pursuant to Circuit Rule 16(e). 1 We now affirm the order of the district ......
  • Teague v. Lane, 87-5259
    • United States
    • United States Supreme Court
    • February 22, 1989
    ...on the Court of Appeals voted to rehear the case en banc, and the panel opinion was vacated. United States ex rel. Teague v. Lane, 779 F.2d 1332 (CA7 1985) (en banc) (Cudahy, J., dissenting). Rehearing was postponed until after our decision in Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S. 79, 106 S.Ct. 1712......
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