U.S. v. Reda

Decision Date12 October 1977
Docket NumberNo. 1160,D,1160
Citation563 F.2d 510
PartiesUNITED STATES of America, Respondent, v. Gino REDA, Defendant-Petitioner. ocket 77-1062.
CourtU.S. Court of Appeals — Second Circuit

Robert B. Fiske, Jr., U. S. Atty., S. D. N. Y., New York City (Robert N. Schwartz, T. Barry Kingham, Asst. U. S. Attys., New York City, of counsel), for respondent.

Gino Reda, pro se.

Before MOORE, SMITH and MULLIGAN, Circuit Judges.

PER CURIAM:

The defendant Gino Reda has appealed from judgments of conviction for the violation of 21 U.S.C. §§ 812, 841(a)(1) and 841(b)(1), and 18 U.S.C. § 2 entered in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York following jury trials before the Hon. Charles E. Stewart, District Judge. On May 17, 1977 this court affirmed Reda's convictions in an oral opinion. Reda's petition for rehearing was granted on August 22, 1977 to consider the effect on this appeal of the Supreme Court's decision of June 21, 1977 in United States v. Chadwick, --- U.S. ----, 97 S.Ct. 2476, 53 L.Ed.2d 538.

Reda was arrested pursuant to a duly issued arrest warrant by agents of the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) at La Guardia Airport. At the time of his arrest he had in his possession a small cardboard box which was taped closed and not opened by the agents until several hours later at the United States Attorney's office in Manhattan. The box contained $1,350 in cash and about one-half pound of cocaine. No search warrant to examine the contents of the box had ever been obtained. Judge Stewart denied the defense motion to suppress the cocaine.

In United States v. Chadwick, supra, the appellants were taken into custody after they were observed removing a 200-pound footlocker from a train at the Boston Station. They placed it in the trunk of a car and while the trunk was still open they were arrested by DEA agents. An hour-and-a-half later, the locker was opened without a search warrant at the Federal Building in Boston and was found to contain large amounts of marihuana. The motion to suppress the marihuana was granted by the district court and that court's order was affirmed by the Court of Appeals for the First Circuit and the Supreme Court of the United States. In response to the Government's argument that the search should have been upheld because a warrantless search at the time of the arrest would have been permissible, Chief Justice Burger, writing for the Court stated:

However, warrantless searches of luggage or other property seized at the time of an arrest cannot be justified as incident to that arrest either if the "search is remote in time or place from the arrest," Preston v. United States, 376 U.S. (364), at 367, 84 S.Ct. (881) at 883, (11 L.Ed.2d 777) or no exigency exists. Once law enforcement officers have reduced luggage or other personal property not immediately associated with the person of the arrestee to their exclusive control, and there is no longer any danger that the arrestee might gain access to the property to seize a weapon or destroy evidence, a search of that property is no longer an incident of the arrest.

97 S.Ct. at 2485 (footnote omitted).

The Government argues that the facts here are distinguishable from those in Chadwick and that under United States v. Edwards, 415 U.S. 800, 94 S.Ct. 1234, 39 L.Ed.2d 771 (1974) the search should be upheld. We prefer not to take any position on this question, but rather rest our affirmance here on the ground that Chadwick is not to be applied retroactively. The Fifth Circuit has previously so held in United States v. Montgomery, 558 F.2d 311 (1977). In United States v. Peltier, 422 U.S. 531, 535, 95 S.Ct. 2313, 45 L.Ed.2d 374 (1975), Mr. Justice Rehnquist pointed out that where the retroactivity problem has been raised in exclusionary rule situations, the Court has determined that the new constitutional principle should be applied only prospectively.

The teaching of the retroactivity cases is that if the law...

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29 cases
  • U.S. v. Ochs
    • United States
    • U.S. Court of Appeals — Second Circuit
    • 13 March 1979
    ...we prefer to rest our decision on the ground that Chadwick did not impair Chambers rather than on our decision in United States v. Reda, 563 F.2d 510 (2 Cir. 1977), Cert. denied, 435 U.S. 973, 98 S.Ct. 1617, 56 L.Ed.2d 65 (1978), holding Chadwick inapplicable to pre-Chadwick searches in tha......
  • State v. Patino
    • United States
    • New Jersey Supreme Court
    • 19 May 1980
    ...(on rehearing), cert. den. sub nom. Richardson v. United States, 439 U.S. 840, 99 S.Ct. 129, 58 L.Ed.2d 138 (1978); United States v. Reda, 563 F.2d 510, 511-512 (2 Cir. 1977), cert. den. 435 U.S. 973, 98 S.Ct. 1617, 56 L.Ed.2d 65 (1978); United States v. Montgomery, 558 F.2d 311, 312 (5 Cir......
  • U.S. v. Modica
    • United States
    • U.S. Court of Appeals — Second Circuit
    • 30 October 1981
    ...See generally United States v. Peltier, 422 U.S. 531, 535-39, 95 S.Ct. 2313, 2316-18, 45 L.Ed.2d 374 (1975); United States v. Reda, 563 F.2d 510, 511-12 (2d Cir. 1977), cert. denied, 435 U.S. 973, 98 S.Ct. 1617, 56 L.Ed.2d 65 (1978). Moreover, any error in admitting the contents of the suit......
  • U.S. v. Calandrella
    • United States
    • U.S. Court of Appeals — Sixth Circuit
    • 31 August 1979
    ...S.Ct. at 2317. In so holding, we agree with the Second, Fifth, Seventh and Ninth Circuits, which have so held. United States v. Reda, 563 F.2d 510 (2d Cir. 1977) (per curiam), Cert. denied, 435 U.S. 973, 98 S.Ct. 1617, 56 L.Ed.2d 65 (1978); United States v. Montgomery, 558 F.2d 311 (5th Cir......
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