United States v. Deleon, No. CR 15–4268 JB

CourtUnited States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
Writing for the CourtJames O. Browning, UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE
Citation287 F.Supp.3d 1187
Parties UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff, v. Angel DELEON, Joe Lawrence Gallegos, Edward Troup, a.k.a. "Huero Troup," Leonard Lujan, Billy Garcia, a.k.a. "Wild Bill," Eugene Martinez, a.k.a. "Little Guero," Allen Patterson, Christopher Chavez, a.k.a. "Critter," Javier Alonso, a.k.a. "Wineo," Arturo Arnulfo Garcia, a.k.a. "Shotgun," Benjamin Clark, a.k.a. "Cyclone," Ruben Hernandez; Jerry Armenta, a.k.a. "Creeper," Jerry Montoya, a.k.a. "Boxer," Mario Rodriguez, a.k.a. "Blue," Timothy Martinez, a.k.a. "Red," Mauricio Varela, a.k.a. "Archie," a.k.a. "Hog Nuts," Daniel Sanchez, a.k.a. "Dan Dan," Gerald Archuleta, a.k.a. "Styx," a.k.a. "Grandma," Conrad Villegas, a.k.a. "Chitmon," Anthony Ray Baca, a.k.a. "Pup," Robert Martinez, a.k.a. "Baby Rob," Roy Paul Martinez, a.k.a. "Shadow," Christopher Garcia, Carlos Herrera, a.k.a. "Lazy," Rudy Perez, a.k.a. "Ru Dog," Andrew Gallegos, a.k.a. "Smiley," Santos Gonzalez; Paul Rivera, Shauna Gutierrez, and Brandy Rodriguez, Defendants.
Decision Date07 March 2018
Docket NumberNo. CR 15–4268 JB

287 F.Supp.3d 1187

UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff,
v.
Angel DELEON, Joe Lawrence Gallegos, Edward Troup, a.k.a. "Huero Troup," Leonard Lujan, Billy Garcia, a.k.a. "Wild Bill," Eugene Martinez, a.k.a. "Little Guero," Allen Patterson, Christopher Chavez, a.k.a. "Critter," Javier Alonso, a.k.a. "Wineo," Arturo Arnulfo Garcia, a.k.a. "Shotgun," Benjamin Clark, a.k.a. "Cyclone," Ruben Hernandez; Jerry Armenta, a.k.a. "Creeper," Jerry Montoya, a.k.a. "Boxer," Mario Rodriguez, a.k.a. "Blue," Timothy Martinez, a.k.a. "Red," Mauricio Varela, a.k.a. "Archie," a.k.a. "Hog Nuts," Daniel Sanchez, a.k.a. "Dan Dan," Gerald Archuleta, a.k.a. "Styx," a.k.a. "Grandma," Conrad Villegas, a.k.a. "Chitmon," Anthony Ray Baca, a.k.a. "Pup," Robert Martinez, a.k.a. "Baby Rob," Roy Paul Martinez, a.k.a. "Shadow," Christopher Garcia, Carlos Herrera, a.k.a. "Lazy," Rudy Perez, a.k.a. "Ru Dog," Andrew Gallegos, a.k.a. "Smiley," Santos Gonzalez; Paul Rivera, Shauna Gutierrez, and Brandy Rodriguez, Defendants.

No. CR 15–4268 JB

United States District Court, D. New Mexico.

Filed March 7, 2018


John C. Anderson, United States Attorney, Maria Ysabel Armijo, Randy M. Castellano, Matthew Beck, Assistant United States Attorneys, United States Attorney's Office, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorneys for the Plaintiff.

Richard Sindel, Sindel, Sindel & Noble, P.C., Clayton, Missouri, and Brock Benjamin, Benjamin Law Firm, El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Joe Lawrence Gallegos.

Patrick J. Burke, Patrick J. Burke, P.C., Denver, Colorado, and Cori Ann Harbour–Valdez, The Harbour Law Firm, P.C., El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Edward Troup.

Russel Dean Clark, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Leonard Lujan.

James A. Castle, Castle & Castle, P.C., Denver, Colorado, and Robert R. Cooper, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Billy Garcia.

Douglas E. Couleur, Douglas E. Couleur, P.A., Santa Fe, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Eugene Martinez.

Phillip A. Linder, The Linder Firm, Dallas, Texas, and Jeffrey C. Lahann, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Allen Patterson.

John L. Granberg, Granberg Law Office, El Paso, Texas, and Orlando Mondragon, El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Christopher Chavez.

Nathan D. Chambers, Nathan D. Chambers, LLC, Denver Colorado, and Noel Orquiz, Deming, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Javier Alonso.

Scott Moran Davidson, Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Billy R. Blackburn, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Arturo Arnulfo Garcia.

Stephen E. Hosford, Stephen E. Hosford, P.C., Arrey, New Mexico, and Jerry Daniel Herrera, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Benjamin Clark.

Pedro Pineda, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Ruben Hernandez.

Gary Mitchell, Mitchell Law Office, Ruidoso, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Jerry Armenta.

Larry A. Hammond, Osborn Maledon, P.A., Phoenix, Arizona, and Margaret Strickland, McGraw & Strickland, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Jerry Montoya.

Steven M. Potolsky, Jacksonville Beach, Florida, and Santiago D. Hernandez, Law Office of Santiago D. Hernandez, El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Mario Rodriguez.

Jacqueline K. Walsh, Walsh & Larranaga, Seattle, Washington, and Ray Velarde, El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Timothy Martinez.

Joe Spencer, El Paso, Texas, and Mary Stillinger, El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Mauricio Varela.

Amy E. Jacks, Law Office of Amy E. Jacks, Los Angeles, California, and Richard Jewkes, El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Daniel Sanchez.

George A. Harrison, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Gerald Archuleta.

B.J. Crow, Crow Law Firm, Roswell, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Conrad Villegas.

Theresa M. Duncan, Duncan, Earnest, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Marc M. Lowry, Rothstein Donatelli, LLP, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Anthony Ray Baca.

Charles J. McElhinney, McElhinney Law Firm, LLC, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Robert Martinez.

Marcia J. Milner, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Roy Paul Martinez.

Christopher W. Adams, Charleston, South Carolina, and Amy Sirignano, Law Office of Amy Sirignano, P.C., Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Christopher Garcia.

William R. Maynard, El Paso, Texas, and Carey Corlew Bhalla, Law Office of Carey C. Bhalla, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Carlos Herrera.

Justine Fox–Young, Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Ryan J. Villa, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Rudy Perez.

Lisa Torraco, Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Donavon A. Roberts, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Andrew Gallegos.

Erlinda O. Johnson, Law Office of Erlinda Ocampo Johnson, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Santos Gonzalez.

Angela Arellanes, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Shauna Gutierrez.

Jerry A. Walz, Walz and Associates, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Brandy Rodriguez.

MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER

James O. Browning, UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE

287 F.Supp.3d 1193

THIS MATTER comes before the Court on: (i) Defendant Santos Gonzales' Motion for Production of Alleged Co–Conspirator Statements, Pre–Trial Hearing on Their Admissibility Pursuant to Fed.R.Evid. 801(d)(2)(E), filed May 9, 2017 (Doc. 1141)("Gonzales Motion"); (ii) Defendant Rudy Perez's Motion for Production of Alleged Co–Conspirator Statements and for Pre–Trial Hearing on Their Admissibility, filed August 21, 2017 (Doc. 1228)("Perez Motion"); (iii) the Opposed Motion for Specification of Co–Conspirator Statements and a Pre–Trial Hearing on the Statements' Admissibility, filed October 6, 2017 (Doc. 1303)("C. Garcia Motion"); (iv) Motion to Prevent the Admission of Statements of Non–Testifying Codefendants Implicating Defendant Billy Garcia and for an Order for the Government to Specify Such Statements Prior to Trial, filed October 10, 2017 (Doc. 1307)("B. Garcia Motion"); (v) Motion for James Hearing and Determination of Co–Conspirator Statements Admissibility at a Pre–Trial Hearing, filed October 13, 2017)(Doc. 1317)("J. Gallegos Motion"); (vi) Defendant Shauna Gutierrez' Opposed Motion for a James Hearing, filed October 13, 2017 (Doc. 1321)("Gutierrez Motion"); (vii) Motion in Limine to Exclude Statement of Cooperating Government Witnesses, filed November 30, 2017 (Doc. 1514)("Perez MIL"); (viii) Opposed Motion in Limine to Exclude Co–Defendant's [sic] Statements, filed December 1, 2017 (Doc. 1517)("C. Garcia MIL"); (ix) Defendant Anthony Ray Baca's Motion in Limine to Prohibit the Government From Questioning Jerry Armenta About Defendant Anthony Ray Baca's Involvement in Counts 6 & 7, filed December 4, 2017 (Doc. 1540)("Baca MIL"); (x) Defendant Daniel Sanchez's Motion in Limine to Preclude the Admission of Un–Confronted, Out of Court Statements Proffered by the Government at the James Hearing, filed January 8, 2018 (Doc. 1616)("Sanchez MIL"); and (xi) the Joint Motion to Renew Motion to Sever Defendants Charged with Offenses in Counts 6 and 7, filed January 21, 2018 (Doc. 1664)("Severance Motion"). The Court held hearings on November 27–29, 2017, December 8, 2017, December 19–20, 2017, and January 9, 2018. See Transcript of Hearing (held November 27, 2017), filed December 6, 2017 (Doc. 1545)("Nov. 27 Tr."); Transcript of Hearing (held November 28, 2017), filed December 6, 2017 (Doc. 1546)("Nov. 28 Tr."); Transcript of Hearing (held November 29, 2017), filed December 6, 2017 (Doc. 1547)("Nov. 29 Tr."); Transcript of Hearing (held December 8, 2017), filed December 15, 2017 (Doc. 1577)("Dec. 8 Tr."); Transcript of Hearing (held December 19, 2017), filed January 4, 2018 (Doc. 1608)("Dec. 19 Tr."); Transcript of Hearing (held December 20, 2017), filed January 5, 2018 (Doc. 1610)("Dec. 20 Tr."); Transcript of Hearing (held January 9, 2018), filed January 24, 2018 (Doc. 1683)("Jan. 9 Tr."). The primary issues are whether the out-of-court statements—largely statements of Defendants Daniel Sanchez, Anthony Ray Baca, Carlos Herrera, and Rudy Perez, and of cooperating Defendants and other inmates—that Plaintiff United States of America intends to offer in evidence at trial to prove the matter

287 F.Supp.3d 1194

asserted: (i) can be admitted notwithstanding the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America's Confrontation Clause; (ii) can be admitted for their truth, because—as coconspirator statements made during and in furtherance of the conspiracy, see Fed. R. Evid. 801(d)(2)(E) —they are not hearsay; (iii) can be admitted, even though they are hearsay, as statements against penal interest made by an unavailable declarant, see Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(3) ; (iv) can be admitted for their truth, because, as admissions offered against Baca, Herrera, or Perez, see Fed. R. Evid. 801(d)(2)(A), they are not hearsay; (v) can be admitted, with a limiting instruction, in a joint trial if the statement is nontestimonial, incriminates multiple Defendants, and is admissible against some—but not all—of those Defendants; and (vi) necessitate sufficiently many limiting...

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28 practice notes
  • United States v. Baca, No. CR 15-4268 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • November 4, 2019
    ...The Court has provided background information on the SNM in a number of prior opinions, including in its Memorandum Opinion and Order, 287 F. Supp. 3d 1187 (D.N.M. 2018) (" MOO"). The Court provides this information, which is gathered from the Indictment, to provide background information o......
  • Parsons v. Velasquez, No. CIV 20-0074 JB/KK
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • July 30, 2021
    ...a statement to be used against anyone other than the party who made the statement, such as codefendants." United States v. DeLeon, 287 F. Supp. 3d 1187, 1256 (D.N.M. 2018)(Browning, J.)(citing United States v. Wolf, 839 F.2d 1387, 1393 & n.4 (10th Cir. 1988); Stephen A. Saltzburg, et al., F......
  • United States v. Martinez, No. CR 19-3725 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • January 27, 2021
    ...a VICAR violation is not, itself, a conspiracy even though it may have a conspiracy as its underlying offense.United States v. DeLeon, 287 F. Supp. 3d 1187, 1255 (D.N.M. 2018)(Browning, J.).LAW REGARDING THE SPEEDY TRIAL ACT "The dual purpose of the Speedy Trial Act is to protect a defendan......
  • United States v. Deleon, No. CR 15-4268 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • October 29, 2019
    ...from happening." Dec. 17 Tr. at 49:5-9. R. Perez' statements to investigators were generally testimonial, see United States v. DeLeon, 287 F. Supp. 3d 1187, 1252 (D.N.M. 2018) (Browning, J.), and were thus inadmissible against Defendants other than R. Perez without R. Perez' testimony. The ......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
28 cases
  • United States v. Baca, No. CR 15-4268 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • November 4, 2019
    ...The Court has provided background information on the SNM in a number of prior opinions, including in its Memorandum Opinion and Order, 287 F. Supp. 3d 1187 (D.N.M. 2018) (" MOO"). The Court provides this information, which is gathered from the Indictment, to provide background information o......
  • Parsons v. Velasquez, No. CIV 20-0074 JB/KK
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • July 30, 2021
    ...a statement to be used against anyone other than the party who made the statement, such as codefendants." United States v. DeLeon, 287 F. Supp. 3d 1187, 1256 (D.N.M. 2018)(Browning, J.)(citing United States v. Wolf, 839 F.2d 1387, 1393 & n.4 (10th Cir. 1988); Stephen A. Saltzburg, et al., F......
  • United States v. Martinez, No. CR 19-3725 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • January 27, 2021
    ...a VICAR violation is not, itself, a conspiracy even though it may have a conspiracy as its underlying offense.United States v. DeLeon, 287 F. Supp. 3d 1187, 1255 (D.N.M. 2018)(Browning, J.).LAW REGARDING THE SPEEDY TRIAL ACT "The dual purpose of the Speedy Trial Act is to protect a defendan......
  • United States v. Deleon, No. CR 15-4268 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • October 29, 2019
    ...from happening." Dec. 17 Tr. at 49:5-9. R. Perez' statements to investigators were generally testimonial, see United States v. DeLeon, 287 F. Supp. 3d 1187, 1252 (D.N.M. 2018) (Browning, J.), and were thus inadmissible against Defendants other than R. Perez without R. Perez' testimony. The ......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

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