United States v. Deleon, No. CR 15-4268 JB

CourtUnited States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
Writing for the CourtJAMES O. BROWNING, UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE
Parties UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff, v. Angel DELEON, Joe Lawrence Gallegos, Edward Troup, a.k.a. "Huero Troup," Leonard Lujan, Billy Garcia, a.k.a. "Wild Bill," Eugene Martinez, a.k.a. "Little Guero," Allen Patterson, Christopher Chavez, a.k.a. "Critter," Javier Alonso, a.k.a. "Wineo," Arturo Arnulfo Garcia, a.k.a. "Shotgun," Benjamin Clark, a.k.a. "Cyclone," Ruben Hernandez; Jerry Armenta, a.k.a. "Creeper," Jerry Montoya, a.k.a. "Boxer," Mario Rodriguez, a.k.a. "Blue," Timothy Martinez, a.k.a. "Red," Mauricio Varela, a.k.a. "Archie," a.k.a. "Hog Nuts," Daniel Sanchez, a.k.a. "Dan Dan," Gerald Archuleta, a.k.a. "Styx," a.k.a. "Grandma," Conrad Villegas, a.k.a. "Chitmon," Anthony Ray Baca, a.k.a. "Pup," Robert Martinez, a.k.a. "Baby Rob," Roy Paul Martinez, a.k.a. "Shadow," Christopher Garcia, Carlos Herrera, a.k.a. "Lazy," Rudy Perez, a.k.a. "Ru Dog," Andrew Gallegos, a.k.a. "Smiley," Santos Gonzalez; Paul Rivera, Shauna Gutierrez, and Brandy Rodriguez, Defendants.
Decision Date18 November 2019
Docket NumberNo. CR 15-4268 JB

423 F.Supp.3d 1210

UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff,
v.
Angel DELEON, Joe Lawrence Gallegos, Edward Troup, a.k.a. "Huero Troup," Leonard Lujan, Billy Garcia, a.k.a. "Wild Bill," Eugene Martinez, a.k.a. "Little Guero," Allen Patterson, Christopher Chavez, a.k.a. "Critter," Javier Alonso, a.k.a. "Wineo," Arturo Arnulfo Garcia, a.k.a. "Shotgun," Benjamin Clark, a.k.a. "Cyclone," Ruben Hernandez; Jerry Armenta, a.k.a. "Creeper," Jerry Montoya, a.k.a. "Boxer," Mario Rodriguez, a.k.a. "Blue," Timothy Martinez, a.k.a. "Red," Mauricio Varela, a.k.a. "Archie," a.k.a. "Hog Nuts," Daniel Sanchez, a.k.a. "Dan Dan," Gerald Archuleta, a.k.a. "Styx," a.k.a. "Grandma," Conrad Villegas, a.k.a. "Chitmon," Anthony Ray Baca, a.k.a. "Pup," Robert Martinez, a.k.a. "Baby Rob," Roy Paul Martinez, a.k.a. "Shadow," Christopher Garcia, Carlos Herrera, a.k.a. "Lazy," Rudy Perez, a.k.a. "Ru Dog," Andrew Gallegos, a.k.a. "Smiley," Santos Gonzalez; Paul Rivera, Shauna Gutierrez, and Brandy Rodriguez, Defendants.

No. CR 15-4268 JB

United States District Court, D. New Mexico.

Filed November 18, 2019


Fred Federici, Attorney for the United States, Acting Under Authority Conferred by 28 U.S.C. § 515, Albuquerque, New Mexico and Maria Ysabel Armijo, Randy M. Castellano, Matthew Beck, Assistant United States Attorneys, United States Attorney's Office, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorneys for the Plaintiff.

Susan M. Porter, Albuquerque, New Mexico and Sarah M. Gorman, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Angel DeLeon.

Richard Sindel, Sindel, Sindel & Noble, P.C., Clayton, Missouri and Brock Benjamin, Benjamin Law Firm, El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Joe Lawrence Gallegos.

Patrick J. Burke, Patrick J. Burke, P.C., Denver, Colorado and Cori Ann Harbour-Valdez, The Harbour Law Firm, P.C., El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Edward Troup.

Russell Dean Clark, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Leonard Lujan.

James A. Castle, Castle & Castle, P.C., Denver, Colorado and Robert R. Cooper, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Billy Garcia.

Douglas E. Couleur, Douglas E. Couleur, P.A., Santa Fe, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Eugene Martinez.

Joseph E. Shattuck, Marco & Shattuck Law Firm, Albuquerque, New Mexico and Jeffrey C. Lahann, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Allen Patterson.

Eduardo Solis, El Paso, Texas and John L. Granberg, Granberg Law Office, El Paso, Texas and Orlando Mondragon, El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Christopher Chavez.

Nathan D. Chambers, Nathan D. Chambers, Attorney at Law, Denver, Colorado and Noel Orquiz, Deming, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Javier Alonso.

Laura E. Udall, Cooper & Udall Law Offices, Tucson, Arizona and Scott Moran Davidson, Albuquerque, New Mexico and Billy R. Blackburn, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Arturo Arnulfo Garcia.

Stephen E. Hosford, Stephen E. Hosford, P.C., Arrey, New Mexico and Jerry Daniel Herrera, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Benjamin Clark.

Pedro Pineda, Las Cruces, New Mexico and León Encinias, León Felipe Encinias, Attorney at Law, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Ruben Hernandez.

Gary Mitchell, Mitchell Law Office, Ruidoso, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Jerry Armenta.

Larry A. Hammond, Osborn Maledon, P.A., Phoenix, Arizona and Margaret Strickland, McGraw & Strickland, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Jerry Montoya.

Steven M. Potolsky, Jacksonville Beach, Florida and Santiago D. Hernandez, Law Office of Santiago D. Hernandez, El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Mario Rodriguez.

Steven Lorenzo Almanza, Las Cruces, New Mexico and Ray Velarde, El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Timothy Martinez.

Joe Spencer, El Paso, Texas and Mary Stillinger, El Paso, Texas, Attorneys for Defendant Mauricio Varela.

Lauren Noriega, The Noriega Law Firm, Los Angeles, California and Richard Jewkes, El Paso, Texas and Amy E. Jacks, Law Office of Amy E. Jacks, Los Angeles, California, Attorneys for Defendant Daniel Sanchez.

George A. Harrison, Las Cruces, New Mexico and Kimberly S. Bruselas-Benavidez, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Gerald Archuleta.

B.J. Crow, Crow Law Firm, Roswell, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Conrad Villegas.

Theresa M. Duncan, Duncan Earnest LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico and Marc M. Lowry, Rothstein Donatelli LLP, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Anthony Ray Baca.

Charles J. McElhinney, CJM Law Firm, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Robert Martinez.

Marcia J. Milner, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Roy Paul Martinez.

Christopher W. Adams, Charleston, South Carolina and Amy Sirignano, Law Office of Amy Sirignano, P.C., Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Christopher Garcia.

William R. Maynard, El Paso, Texas and Carey Corlew Bhalla, Law Office of Carey C. Bhalla, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Carlos Herrera.

Justine Fox-Young, Albuquerque, New Mexico and Ryan J. Villa, Law Office of Ryan J. Villa, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Rudy Perez.

Donavon A. Roberts, Albuquerque, New Mexico and Lisa Torraco, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Andrew Gallegos.

Erlinda O. Johnson, Law Office of Erlinda Ocampo Johnson, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Santos Gonzalez.

Keith R. Romero, Keith R. Romero, Attorney and Counselor at Law, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorney for Paul Rivera.

Angela Arellanes, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorney for Defendant Shauna Gutierrez.

Jerry A. Walz, Alfred D. Creecy, Samuel Winder, Walz and Associates, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Attorneys for Defendant Brandy Rodriguez.

MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER

JAMES O. BROWNING, UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE

423 F.Supp.3d 1216

THIS MATTER comes before the Court on Plaintiff United States' Notice of, and Motion in Limine to Admit Gang Expert Witnesses' Testimony, filed October 6, 2017 (Doc. 1299)("Motion"). The Court held a hearing on November 27, 2017. The primary issues are: (i) whether the Court should allow Plaintiff United States of America to call gang expert witnesses, to testify about Syndicato de Nuevo Mexico ("SNM"); and (ii) if the Court allows such expert testimony, whether the Court should limit the proposed expert witnesses' testimony. The Court concludes that it will admit the gang experts' testimony to the extent that the gang experts describe gangs generally but will preclude testimony specifically about snm. Accordingly, the Court grants the Motion in part and denies it in part.

FACTUAL BACKGROUND

The Court takes its background facts from the Second Superseding Indictment, filed March 9, 2017 (Doc. 947)("Indictment"). The background facts are largely unchanged from those facts that the Court provides in its Memorandum Opinion and Order, 323 F.R.D. 672, filed December 18, 2017 (Doc. 1585). The Court does not set forth these facts as findings or the truth. The Court recognizes that the factual background largely reflects the United States' version of events.

This case deals with crimes that SNM allegedly committed through its members. See Indictment at 2. SNM, through its members, operates in the District of New Mexico, and its members engage in acts of violence and other criminal activities, "including murder, kidnapping, attempted murder, conspiracy to manufacture/distribute narcotics, and firearms trafficking." Indictment at 2. The SNM constitutes an enterprise "as defined in Title 18, United States Code, Section 1959(b)(2), that is, a group of individuals associated in fact that engaged in, and the activities of which affected, interstate and foreign commerce." Indictment at 2-3.

The SNM is a prison gang formed in the early 1980s at the Penitentiary of New Mexico ("PNM") after a violent prison riot at PNM during which inmates assaulted and raped twelve correctional officers after taking them hostage. Indictment at 3. During the riot, thirty-three inmates were killed, and over 200 inmates were injured. See Indictment at 3. After the PNM riot, SNM expanded throughout the state's prison system and has had as many as 500 members. See Indictment at 3. SNM now has approximately 250 members, including "a ‘panel’ or ‘mesa’ (Spanish for table) of leaders who issue orders to subordinate gang members." Indictment at 3. SNM controls drug distribution and other illegal

423 F.Supp.3d 1217

activities within the New Mexico penal system, but it also conveys orders to members outside the prison system. See Indictment at 3. Members who rejoin their communities after completing their sentences are expected to further the gang's goals: primarily the control and profit of narcotics trafficking. See Indictment at 3-4. Members who fail "to show continued loyalty to the gang [are] disciplined in various ways, [ ] includ[ing] murder and assaults." Indictment at 4.

SNM also intimidates and influences smaller New Mexico Hispanic gangs to expand its power. See Indictment at 4. If another gang does not follow SNM's demands, SNM will assault or kill one of the other gang's members to show its...

To continue reading

Request your trial
6 practice notes
  • United States v. Deleon, CR 19-3725 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • December 29, 2021
    ...Indictment”). The background facts are largely unchanged from those facts that the Court provides in its Memorandum Opinion and Order, 423 F.Supp.3d 1210, filed November 19, 2019 (Doc. 1585), in United States v. DeLeon, et al., No. CR 15-4268 JB. The Court does not set forth these facts as ......
  • United States v. Deleon, CR 15-4268 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • September 8, 2021
    ...The background facts are largely unchanged from those facts that the Court provides in its Memorandum Opinion and Order, 423 F. Supp. 3d 1210, filed November 19, 2019 (Doc. 1585). The Court does not set forth these facts as findings or the truth. The Court recognizes that the factual backgr......
  • State v. Hogan, Appeal No. 2019AP2350-CR
    • United States
    • Court of Appeals of Wisconsin
    • March 24, 2021
    ...118 F.3d 318, 321 (5th Cir. 1997) (upholding admissibility of expert testimony on drug traffickers’ jargon); United States v. DeLeon , 423 F. Supp. 3d 1210, 1245 (D.N.M. 2019) (admitting generalized expert testimony on gangs’ operation).11 Of course, Remington may very well have been able t......
  • United States v. Deleon, CR 15-4268 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • October 21, 2021
    ...The background facts are largely unchanged from those facts that the Court provides in its Memorandum Opinion and Order, 423 F.Supp.3d 1210, filed November 19, 2019 (Doc. 1585). The Court does not set forth these facts as findings or the truth. The Court recognizes that the factual backgrou......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
6 cases
  • United States v. Deleon, CR 19-3725 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • December 29, 2021
    ...Indictment”). The background facts are largely unchanged from those facts that the Court provides in its Memorandum Opinion and Order, 423 F.Supp.3d 1210, filed November 19, 2019 (Doc. 1585), in United States v. DeLeon, et al., No. CR 15-4268 JB. The Court does not set forth these facts as ......
  • United States v. Deleon, CR 15-4268 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • September 8, 2021
    ...The background facts are largely unchanged from those facts that the Court provides in its Memorandum Opinion and Order, 423 F. Supp. 3d 1210, filed November 19, 2019 (Doc. 1585). The Court does not set forth these facts as findings or the truth. The Court recognizes that the factual backgr......
  • State v. Hogan, Appeal No. 2019AP2350-CR
    • United States
    • Court of Appeals of Wisconsin
    • March 24, 2021
    ...118 F.3d 318, 321 (5th Cir. 1997) (upholding admissibility of expert testimony on drug traffickers’ jargon); United States v. DeLeon , 423 F. Supp. 3d 1210, 1245 (D.N.M. 2019) (admitting generalized expert testimony on gangs’ operation).11 Of course, Remington may very well have been able t......
  • United States v. Deleon, CR 15-4268 JB
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 10th Circuit. District of New Mexico
    • October 21, 2021
    ...The background facts are largely unchanged from those facts that the Court provides in its Memorandum Opinion and Order, 423 F.Supp.3d 1210, filed November 19, 2019 (Doc. 1585). The Court does not set forth these facts as findings or the truth. The Court recognizes that the factual backgrou......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT