United States v. Durham, 082918 FED10, 16-6075

Docket Nº:16-6075
Opinion Judge:MATHESON, CIRCUIT JUDGE.
Party Name:UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff - Appellee, v. MATTHEW LANE DURHAM, Defendant-Appellant.
Attorney:Stephen Jones (Ashley Morey with him on the brief), Jones, Otjen, Davis & Bloyd, Enid, Oklahoma, for Defendant - Appellant. Steven W. Creager, Assistant United States Attorney (David P. Petermann, Assistant United States Attorney, and Mark Yancey, United States Attorney, with him on the brief), O...
Judge Panel:Before HARTZ, MATHESON, and MORITZ, Circuit Judges. HARTZ, Circuit Judge, dissenting.
Case Date:August 29, 2018
Court:United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit
SUMMARY

Matthew Durham appealed his convictions and sentence on four counts for illicit sex with minors in Kenya after travelling there from the United States. He raised eight issues for the Tenth Circuit's review, arguing errors regarding the conduct of trial and the admission of certain evidence all cumulatively affected his Constitutional rights. In addition, he argued 18 U.S.C. § 2423(c), the statute ... (see full summary)

 
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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff - Appellee,

v.

MATTHEW LANE DURHAM, Defendant-Appellant.

No. 16-6075

United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit

August 29, 2018

Appeal from the United States District Court for the Western District of Oklahoma (D.C. No. 5:14-CR-00231-R-1)

Stephen Jones (Ashley Morey with him on the brief), Jones, Otjen, Davis & Bloyd, Enid, Oklahoma, for Defendant - Appellant.

Steven W. Creager, Assistant United States Attorney (David P. Petermann, Assistant United States Attorney, and Mark Yancey, United States Attorney, with him on the brief), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, for Plaintiff - Appellee.

Before HARTZ, MATHESON, and MORITZ, Circuit Judges.

MATHESON, CIRCUIT JUDGE.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. BACKGROUND..........................................................................................2

A. Factual Background................................................................................2

B. Procedural Background...........................................................................6

II. DISCUSSION.............................................................................................8

A. Issue One: Constitutionality of 18 U.S.C. § 2423(c) under the Foreign Commerce Clause....................................................................8

1. Section 2423(c) and Congress's Efforts to Combat Sex Trafficking .... 9

a. Provisions of the statutory scheme..................................................10

b. Early efforts to combat sex trafficking...........................................12

c. Legislative history leading to passage of § 2423(c)........................14

i. Enactment of § 2423(b)...............................................................14

ii. Enactment of § 2423(c)..............................................................15

2. The Commerce Clause.......................................................................18

a. ICC case law...................................................................................19

i. Channels......................................................................................19

ii. Instrumentalities.........................................................................20

iii. Substantial effect.......................................................................20

b. FCC case law .................................................................................. 22

3. Congressional Authority Broader Under the FCC than the ICC ......... 24

a. History ............................................................................................ 25

b. Text ................................................................................................ 26

c. Purpose ........................................................................................... 28

d. The dissent's view .......................................................................... 29

i. Japan Line and the scope of FCC power ..................................... 30

ii. Sovereignty of other nations ....................................................... 32

iii. Summary ................................................................................... 36

4. The Lopez Categories in the Foreign Commerce Context ................... 36

a. The ICC's three categories as a starting point ................................. 37

b. The substantial-effect category is applicable here .......................... 38

c. Evolution of the third Lopez category ............................................. 38

d. Adapting the third Lopez category to the FCC ................................ 42

5. Constitutionality of § 2423(c) ............................................................ 43

a. Section 2423(c)'s legislative history supports rational basis ........... 44

b. Section 2423(c) is an essential part of a broader statutory scheme . 45

c. Section 2423(c)'s jurisdictional element supports rational basis ..... 48

d. Raich supports rational basis for § 2423(c) ..................................... 48

e. Rational basis standard ................................................................... 52

6. Legal Landscape ................................................................................. 54

7. Conclusion ......................................................................................... 56

B. Issue Two: Brady Claim ....................................................................... 57

1. Additional Procedural Background .................................................... 57

a. Trial testimony ................................................................................ 57

b. Supplemental motion for new trial ................................................. 60

2. Analysis ............................................................................................. 64

a. Standard of Review ......................................................................... 64

b. Legal Background .......................................................................... 64

c. No prejudice for a Brady violation .................................................. 65

C. Issue Three: Mr. Durham's Statements about Child Pornography and Homosexuality .......................................... 67

1. Standard of Review ............................................................................ 68

2. Additional Factual Background .......................................................... 68

a. Evidence about child pornography and homosexuality ................... 68

b. District court rulings ....................................................................... 69

3. Legal Background .............................................................................. 71

a. Rule 404(b) ..................................................................................... 71

b. Rules 401 and 402 .......................................................................... 71

c. Rule 403 ......................................................................................... 71

4. Analysis ............................................................................................. 72

a. Rule 404(b) ..................................................................................... 72

b. Rules 401 and 402 .......................................................................... 73

c. Rule 403 ......................................................................................... 74

D. Issue Four: Prosecutorial Misconduct .................................................. 75

1. Standard of Review ............................................................................ 75

2. Additional Factual Background .......................................................... 76

a. The Government's cross-examination of Mr. Durham .................... 76

b. The Government's closing argument .............................................. 77

3. Additional Procedural Background .................................................... 77

4. Legal Background .............................................................................. 78

5. Analysis ............................................................................................. 79

a. Preservation .................................................................................... 79

i. Alleged misconduct during cross-examination of Mr. Durham .... 79

ii. Alleged misconduct during closing argument ............................. 80

b. Plain error-substantial rights ........................................................ 80

i. Alleged misconduct during cross-examination of Mr. Durham .... 81

ii. Alleged misconduct during closing argument ............................. 81

E. Issue Five: Cellphone Videos Authentication ....................................... 83

1. Standard of Review ............................................................................ 84

2. Additional Background ...................................................................... 84

a. Pre-Trial...

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