United States v. State of Washington, Civ. No. 9213—Phase I.

Decision Date30 June 1978
Docket NumberCiv. No. 9213—Phase I.
Citation459 F. Supp. 1020
CourtU.S. District Court — Western District of Washington
PartiesUNITED STATES of America et al., Plaintiffs, v. STATE of WASHINGTON et al., Defendants.





Stan Pitkin, U. S. Atty., J. Ronald Sim, James C. Waldo, Harry J. McCarthy, Asst. U. S. Attys., Seattle, Wash., George D. Dysart, Sp. Asst. U. S. Atty., Portland, Or., for United States.

Alvin J. Ziontz, Mason D. Morisset, Ziontz, Pirtle, Morisset, Ernstoff & Chestnut, Seattle, Wash., for Quileute, Makah and Lummi Tribes.

Alan C. Stay, Thomas P. Schlosser, John H. Sennhauser, Evergreen Legal Services, Seattle, Wash., for Sauk-Suiattle, Samish, Snohomish, Steilacoom, Stillaguamish, Nooksack, Suquamish, Nisqually, Muckleshoot, Squaxin Island, Skokomish, Lower Elwha, Snoqualmie and Upper Skagit Tribes.

Lewis A. Bell, Bell, Ingram & Rice, Everett, Wash., for Tulalip Tribes.

Michael Taylor, Tahola, Wash., for Quinault Tribe.

John Clinebell, Tacoma, Wash., William H. Rodgers, Jr., Washington, D. C., for Puyallup Tribe.

Harwood Bannister, Bannister, Bruhn & Cunningham, Mt. Vernon, Wash., for Swinomish Tribe.

Slade Gorton, Atty. Gen., James M. Johnson, Sr. Asst. Atty. Gen., Dennis Reynolds, Asst. Atty. Gen., Olympia, Wash., for defendant State of Washington.


                                               TABLE OF CONTENTS
                ORDER                                                                      PAGE
                Decision, Injunction and Order Re State Court Injunctions Preventing
                Enforcement of Certain Department of Fisheries Regulations (9/12/74)       1028
                Order for Program to Implement Interim Plan (10/8/74, 11/21/74
                8/6/75 and 4/5/76)                                                         1035
                Order Directing Prompt Notice to Fisheries Technical Adviser When
                Fishery Problems Arise (11/20/74)                                          1038
                Decision re Quinault Fishery Outside the Case Area (11/22/74)              1038
                Decisions Re Status of Additional Tribes. First and Second Supplemental
                Findings of Fact (12/31/74; 2/26/75)                                       1039
                First and Second Supplemental Conclusions of Law (12/31/74
                2/26/75)                                                                   1041
                Preliminary Injunction and Memorandum Decision re Green River
                Steelhead Fisheries (1/14 and 1/20/75)                                     1042
                Memorandum Decision and Orders re Nisqually River Fisheries (2/14
                and 2/26/75)                                                               1047
                Orders re Herring Fisheries and Determination of Usual and Accustomed
                Fishing Places of Additional Tribes (3/28 and 4/18/75)                     1048
                Decision and Decree Re 1975 Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon
                Harvest (Fourth Supplemental Findings of Fact and Conclusions of
                Law) (7/16/75 modified and supplemented 8/6/75)                            1050
                Permanent Injunction re 1975 Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon
                Harvest (7/16/75 as amended 7/30/75)                                       1055
                Injunction Staying Proceedings re 1975 IPFSC Fisheries in Cause No
                52881 Before Superior Court for Thurston County, State of Washington;
                and Denial of Defendants' Motions (8/6/75)                                 1056
                Preliminary Injunction Re Swinomish Indian Tribal Community Chinook
                Fishery in West Beach Area (8/8/75 as corrected 8/18/75)                   1056
                Order re Conditional Fishing Rights of Certain Plaintiff-Intervenor
                Tribes (8/14/75)                                                           1057
                Order re Tulalip Tribes' Usual and Accustomed Fishing Places
                (9/10/75 as amended 10/15 and 12/29/75)                                    1058
                Stipulation re Notice of Regulations (10/15/75)                            1060
                Decision re Certain On-reservation Fisheries of Puyallup and Nisqually
                Tribes (10/21/75)                                                          1060
                Orders Establishing Fisheries Advisory Board and Prescribing Procedures
                for State Emergency Regulations (10/28/75 as amended and supplemented
                12/17/76)                                                                  1061
                Order for Interim Plan for Management of Herring Fisheries
                (2/13/76)                                                                  1063
                Order re Makah Tribe's Request for Reconsideration of Lower Elwha
                Usual and Accustomed Fishing Places (3/10/76)                              1066
                Order re Tulalip Tribes' Objection to Stillaguamish Fishing Regulations
                (3/10/76)                                                                  1068
                                               TABLE OF CONTENTS
                ORDER                                                                      PAGE
                Order on Certain Questions re: Salmon Fisheries Management
                (4/13/76)                                                                  1069
                Memorandum Decision and Order Granting Preliminary Injunction re
                Hatchery Propagated Fish (8/13/76)                                         1072
                Order Granting Preliminary Injunction re Hatchery-Propagated Fish
                (8/13/76)                                                                  1085
                Order on Certain Questions re Steelhead Management (9/14/76 as extended
                1/10/78)                                                                   1085
                Order re Compliance with State Permit Requirements for Fisheries
                Research or Release of Fish (9/15/76)                                      1089
                Order Re: State "Buy-Back" Program (12/22/76)                              1089
                Memorandum Decision Denying Disqualification (5/2/77)                      1093
                Memorandum Order and Preliminary Injunction Re: Inclusion of
                Grays Harbor in the Case Area (8/31/77)                                    1097
                Memorandum Order and Preliminary Injunction Re: Allocation of
                1977 Salmon Runs and Other Matters (8/31/77 as supplemented
                9/28/77)                                                                   1097
                Preliminary Injunction Staying State Court Injunction and Order
                Implementing Preliminary Injunction (8/31/77)                              1104
                Memorandum Adopting Salmon Management Plan (8/31/77 as amended
                10/11/78)                                                                  1107
                Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law and Preliminary Injunction Re:
                Enforcement of 1977 Fisheries Orders (9/27/77)                             1113
                Preliminary Injunction Staying Thurston County Superior Court
                (10/17/77)                                                                 1117
                Order Adopting Steelhead Management Plan (1/31/78 as modified
                4/21/78 and 10/11/78)                                                      1118
                Order Re: 1978 Sac Roe Herring Fishery (4/14/78 as supplemented
                5/2/78)                                                                    1120
                Order, Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law and Preliminary Injunction
                Re: Enforcement of Limitations on Nontreaty Salmon Fisheries
                for 1978 and Subsequent Seasons (6/6/78 as amended 6/15/78)                1125

(Through June 30, 1978)

BOLDT, District Judge.

The initial decision of the court dated February 12, 1974, (hereinafter Final Decision # 1) and related rulings and decree of March 22, 1974, in this case are set forth at 384 F.Supp. 312 (aff'd 520 F.2d 676 (9th Cir. 1975), cert. denied, 423 U.S. 1086, 96 S.Ct. 877, 47 L.Ed.2d 97, rehearing denied 424 U.S. 978, 96 S.Ct. 1487, 47 L.Ed.2d 750 (1976)). Under the court's retention of continuing jurisdiction, subsequent decisions and orders of a substantive nature rendered through June 30, 1978, are set forth or summarized below. All summarizations or editing herein of the provisions as entered, are by the court.1

Subsequent to Final Decision # 1 herein, the following parties were allowed to intervene as additional plaintiffs: Duwamish, Jamestown Band Clallam, Lower Elwha Band Clallam, Nooksack, Port Gamble Band Clallam, Samish, Snohomish, Snoqualmie, Steilacoom, Suquamish, Swinomish, Aboriginal Swinomish and Tulalip Tribes. The Nisqually and Puyallup Tribes which had only been represented by the United States, were allowed to intervene on their own behalf. Applications to intervene as additional defendants by the Northwest Steelheaders' Council of Trout Unlimited, Gary Ellis its president, Purse Seine Vessel Owners Association and Washington State Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Association were denied.

By separate order the court appointed United States Magistrate Robert E. Cooper as Master and Dr. Richard R. Whitney2 as fisheries science and management advisor to assist the court. A Fisheries Advisory Board was established as set forth, infra.


(September 12, 1974)

Paragraph 5 of the Interim Plan and Stay Order entered by this court on March 22, 1974 (384 F.Supp. at 420), obligates defendants State of Washington, Washington Department of Game and its Director and Washington Department of Fisheries and its Director, (hereinafter "defendants") to make significant reductions in the non-Indian fishery as deemed necessary to achieve the objectives of the court's definition of Indian treaty fishing rights. In carrying out this order the court anticipated that defendants would promulgate and enforce regulations reducing the non-Indian fishery. Defendants have promulgated certain regulations establishing reductions in the non-Indian fishery but have been unable to enforce them by reason of certain directives and orders of the Thurston County Superior Court in Washington State Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Association v. Tollefson, No. 50380, Washington Kelpers Association v. Tollefson, No. 50552 and Puget Sound Gillnetters Association v....

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