Zeran v. America Online, Inc.

Decision Date12 November 1997
Docket NumberNo. 97-1523,97-1523
Citation129 F.3d 327
Parties25 Media L. Rep. 2526, 10 Communications Reg. (P&F) 456 Kenneth M. ZERAN, Plaintiff-Appellant, v. AMERICA ONLINE, INCORPORATED, Defendant-Appellee.
CourtU.S. Court of Appeals — Fourth Circuit

ARGUED: John Saul Edwards, Law Offices of John S. Edwards, Roanoke, VA; Leo Kayser, III, Kayser & Redfern, New York City, for Appellant. Patrick Joseph Carome, Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering, Washington, DC, for Appellee. ON BRIEF: John Payton, Samir Jain, Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering, Washington, DC; Randall J. Boe, America Online, Inc., Dulles, VA, for Appellee.

Before WILKINSON, Chief Judge, RUSSELL, Circuit Judge, and BOYLE, Chief United States District Judge for the Eastern District of North Carolina, sitting by designation.

Affirmed by published opinion. Chief Judge WILKINSON wrote the opinion, in which Judge RUSSELL and Chief Judge BOYLE joined.

OPINION

WILKINSON, Chief Judge:

Kenneth Zeran brought this action against America Online, Inc. ("AOL"), arguing that AOL unreasonably delayed in removing defamatory messages posted by an unidentified third party, refused to post retractions of those messages, and failed to screen for similar postings thereafter. The district court granted judgment for AOL on the grounds that the Communications Decency Act of 1996 ("CDA")--47 U.S.C. § 230--bars Zeran's claims. Zeran appeals, arguing that § 230 leaves intact liability for interactive computer service providers who possess notice of defamatory material posted through their services. He also contends that § 230 does not apply here because his claims arise from AOL's alleged negligence prior to the CDA's enactment. Section 230, however, plainly immunizes computer service providers like AOL from liability for information that originates with third parties. Furthermore, Congress clearly expressed its intent that § 230 apply to lawsuits, like Zeran's, instituted after the CDA's enactment. Accordingly, we affirm the judgment of the district court.

I.

"The Internet is an international network of interconnected computers," currently used by approximately 40 million people worldwide. Reno v. ACLU, --- U.S. ----, ----, 117 S.Ct. 2329, 2334, 138 L.Ed.2d 874 (1997). One of the many means by which individuals access the Internet is through an interactive computer service. These services offer not only a connection to the Internet as a whole but also allow their subscribers to access information communicated and stored only on each computer service's individual proprietary network. Id. AOL is just such an interactive computer service. Much of the information transmitted over its network originates with the company's millions of subscribers. They may transmit information privately via electronic mail, or they may communicate publicly by posting messages on AOL bulletin boards, where the messages may be read by any AOL subscriber.

The instant case comes before us on a motion for judgment on the pleadings, see Fed.R.Civ.P. 12(c), so we accept the facts alleged in the complaint as true. Bruce v. Riddle, 631 F.2d 272, 273 (4th Cir.1980). On April 25, 1995, an unidentified person posted a message on an AOL bulletin board advertising "Naughty Oklahoma T-Shirts." The posting described the sale of shirts featuring offensive and tasteless slogans related to the April 19, 1995, bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. Those interested in purchasing the shirts were instructed to call "Ken" at Zeran's home phone number in Seattle, Washington. As a result of this anonymously perpetrated prank, Zeran received a high volume of calls, comprised primarily of angry and derogatory messages, but also including death threats. Zeran could not change his phone number because he relied on its availability to the public in running his business out of his home. Later that day, Zeran called AOL and informed a company representative of his predicament. The employee assured Zeran that the posting would be removed from AOL's bulletin board but explained that as a matter of policy AOL would not post a retraction. The parties dispute the date that AOL removed this original posting from its bulletin board.

On April 26, the next day, an unknown person posted another message advertising additional shirts with new tasteless slogans related to the Oklahoma City bombing. Again, interested buyers were told to call Zeran's phone number, to ask for "Ken," and to "please call back if busy" due to high demand. The angry, threatening phone calls intensified. Over the next four days, an unidentified party continued to post messages on AOL's bulletin board, advertising additional items including bumper stickers and key chains with still more offensive slogans. During this time period, Zeran called AOL repeatedly and was told by company representatives that the individual account from which the messages were posted would soon be closed. Zeran also reported his case to Seattle FBI agents. By April 30, Zeran was receiving an abusive phone call approximately every two minutes.

Meanwhile, an announcer for Oklahoma City radio station KRXO received a copy of the first AOL posting. On May 1, the announcer related the message's contents on the air, attributed them to "Ken" at Zeran's phone number, and urged the listening audience to call the number. After this radio broadcast, Zeran was inundated with death threats and other violent calls from Oklahoma City residents. Over the next few days, Zeran talked to both KRXO and AOL representatives. He also spoke to his local police, who subsequently surveilled his home to protect his safety. By May 14, after an Oklahoma City newspaper published a story exposing the shirt advertisements as a hoax and after KRXO made an on-air apology, the number of calls to Zeran's residence finally subsided to fifteen per day.

Zeran first filed suit on January 4, 1996, against radio station KRXO in the United States District Court for the Western District of Oklahoma. On April 23, 1996, he filed this separate suit against AOL in the same court. Zeran did not bring any action against the party who posted the offensive messages. 1 After Zeran's suit against AOL was transferred to the Eastern District of Virginia pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1404(a), AOL answered Zeran's complaint and interposed 47 U.S.C. § 230 as an affirmative defense. AOL then moved for judgment on the pleadings pursuant to Fed.R.Civ.P. 12(c). The district court granted AOL's motion, and Zeran filed this appeal.

II.
A.

Because § 230 was successfully advanced by AOL in the district court as a defense to Zeran's claims, we shall briefly examine its operation here. Zeran seeks to hold AOL liable for defamatory speech initiated by a third party. He argued to the district court that once he notified AOL of the unidentified third party's hoax, AOL had a duty to remove the defamatory posting promptly, to notify its subscribers of the message's false nature, and to effectively screen future defamatory material. Section 230 entered this litigation as an affirmative defense pled by AOL. The company claimed that Congress immunized interactive computer service providers from claims based on information posted by a third party.

The relevant portion of § 230 states: "No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider." 47 U.S.C. § 230(c)(1). 2 By its plain language, § 230 creates a federal immunity to any cause of action that would make service providers liable for information originating with a third-party user of the service. Specifically, § 230 precludes courts from entertaining claims that would place a computer service provider in a publisher's role. Thus, lawsuits seeking to hold a service provider liable for its exercise of a publisher's traditional editorial functions--such as deciding whether to publish, withdraw, postpone or alter content--are barred.

The purpose of this statutory immunity is not difficult to discern. Congress recognized the threat that tort-based lawsuits pose to freedom of speech in the new and burgeoning Internet medium. The imposition of tort liability on service providers for the communications of others represented, for Congress, simply another form of intrusive government regulation of speech. Section 230 was enacted, in part, to maintain the robust nature of Internet communication and, accordingly, to keep government interference in the medium to a minimum. In specific statutory findings, Congress recognized the Internet and interactive computer services as offering "a forum for a true diversity of political discourse, unique opportunities for cultural development, and myriad avenues for intellectual activity." Id. § 230(a)(3). It also found that the Internet and interactive computer services "have flourished, to the benefit of all Americans, with a minimum of government regulation." Id. § 230(a)(4) (emphasis added). Congress further stated that it is "the policy of the United States ... to preserve the vibrant and competitive free market that presently exists for the Internet and other interactive computer services, unfettered by Federal or State regulation." Id. § 230(b)(2) (emphasis added).

None of this means, of course, that the original culpable party who posts defamatory messages would escape accountability. While Congress acted to keep government regulation of the Internet to a minimum, it also found it to be the policy of the United States "to ensure vigorous enforcement of Federal criminal laws to deter and punish trafficking in obscenity, stalking, and harassment by means of computer." Id. § 230(b)(5). Congress made a policy choice, however, not to deter harmful online speech through the separate route of imposing tort liability on companies that serve as intermediaries for other parties' potentially injurious messages.

Congress'...

To continue reading

Request your trial
326 cases
  • Hassell v. Bird
    • United States
    • California Supreme Court
    • July 2, 2018
    ...withdraw, postpone or alter content—are barred.' " ( Id ., at pp. 1361-1362, 203 Cal.Rptr.3d 203 , quoting Zeran v. America Online, Inc. (4th Cir. 1997) 129 F.3d 327, 330 ( Zeran ).)The Court of Appeal nevertheless determined that section 230 does not prohibit a directive that Yelp remov......
  • Gonzalez v. Google, Inc.
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — Northern District of California
    • October 23, 2017
    ...statutory language emphasizes and supports this focus." 252 F.Supp.3d 140, 2017 WL 2192621, at *14 ; see also Zeran v. Am. Online, Inc. , 129 F.3d 327, 330–31 (4th Cir. 1997) (" Section 230 was enacted, in part, to maintain the robust nature of Internet communication and, accordingly, to ke......
  • Doe v. Twitter, Inc.
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — Northern District of California
    • August 19, 2021
    ...pornography." Id. at 23. According to Plaintiffs, neither of the cases upon which the Texas district court relied, Zeran v. Am. Online, Inc. , 129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir. 1997) and Noah v. AOL Time Warner, Inc. , 261 F. Supp. 2d 532, 537 (E.D. Va. 2003), aff'd, No. 03-1770, 2004 WL 602711 (4th C......
  • In re Facebook, Inc.
    • United States
    • Texas Supreme Court
    • June 25, 2021
    ...distinctions in defamation law between "publishers" and "distributors." Malwarebytes , 141 S. Ct. at 15. But as the Fourth Circuit in Zeran observed, in some ways "distributor liability ... is merely a subset ... of publisher liability" within defamation law. 129 F.3d at 332. As Justice Tho......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
6 firm's commentaries
  • Mexico’s Telecommunications’ Reform Ready To Be Signed By President Peña Nieto
    • United States
    • Mondaq United States
    • November 21, 2013
    ...therein (see Fair Housing Council of San Fernando Valley v. Rommate.com,LLC 521 F.3d 1157 (9th Cir. 2008); Zeran v. America Online, Inc., 129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir.1997);  Ben Ezra, Weinstein & Co. v. America Online, Inc., 206 F.3d 980 (10th Cir.2000);  Green v. America Online, 318 F.3d 465......
  • Mexico's Telecommunications' Reform Ready To Be Signed By President Peña Nieto
    • United States
    • Mondaq United States
    • July 22, 2013
    ...therein (see Fair Housing Council of San Fernando Valley v. Rommate.com,LLC 521 F.3d 1157 (9th Cir. 2008); Zeran v. America Online, Inc., 129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir.1997);  Ben Ezra, Weinstein & Co. v. America Online, Inc., 206 F.3d 980 (10th Cir.2000);  Green v. America Online, 318 F.3d 465......
  • Supreme Court To Address Section 230 For First Time
    • United States
    • Mondaq United States
    • October 10, 2022
    ...have construed the law broadly to confer sweeping immunity on some of the largest companies in the world.). 5. Zeran v. Am. Online, Inc., 129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir. 6. Id. at 300. 7. Batzel v. Smith, 333 F.3d 1018 (9th Cir. 2003). 8. Doe v. MySpace, Inc., 528 F.3d 413 (5th Cir. 2008). 9. See, e......
  • Online Service Provider Liability Under The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
    • United States
    • Mondaq United States
    • July 16, 2001
    ...protection if they follow these procedures. It should be noted that if a SP fails to meet one or more of the requirements for limiting its liability under these DMCA provisions, all of the traditional copyright defenses will still be available to the SP to defend against a claim of copyright infr......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
64 books & journal articles
  • E-law 4: Computer Information Systems Law and System Operator Liability
    • United States
    • Seattle University School of Law Seattle University Law Review No. 21-03, March 1998
    • Invalid date
    ...WL 323710 (N.Y. Sup. May 24, 1995). The result in this case has been superceded by statute. See, e.g., Zehran v. American Online, Inc., 129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir. 1997). 39. Statton Oakmont, 1995 WL 323710 at *1. 40. Id. at *4. 41. Joseph P. Thornton, et al., Symposium: Legal Issues in Electron......
  • Censorship by proxy: the First Amendment, Internet intermediaries, and the problem of the weakest link.
    • United States
    • University of Pennsylvania Law Review Vol. 155 No. 1, November 2006
    • November 1, 2006
    ...& Co. v. Am. Online, Inc., 206 F.3d 980, 986 (10th Cir. 2000) (online posting of stock information); Zeran v. Am. Online, Inc., 129 F.3d 327, 327 (4th Cir. 1997) (online message-board postings); Optinrealbig.com, LLC v. Ironport Sys., 323 F. Supp. 2d 1037, 1046-47 (N.D. Cal. 2004) (onli......
  • Combating Internet Trolls: The Right of Publicity and Section 230
    • United States
    • ABA General Library Landslide No. 13-1, September 2020
    • September 9, 2020
    ...with Forms § 37.05[5][B] (2d ed. 2020 update). 16. Id. 17. 339 F.3d 1119 (9th Cir. 2003). 18. 456 F.3d 1316, 1324 (11th Cir. 2006). 19. 129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir. 1997). 20. 540 F. Supp. 2d 288 (D.N.H. 2008). 21. Id. at 291–92. 22. See Restatement (Second) of Torts §§ 652A–652E (Am. Law Inst. 1......
  • Wikimmunity: fitting the Communications Decency Act to Wikipedia.
    • United States
    • Harvard Journal of Law & Technology Vol. 20 No. 1, September 2006
    • September 22, 2006
    ...Winner on Medium of Harmful Information § (Reason Why Plaintiff Won Where Appropriate) 230 1997 D AOL bulletin board Zeran v. AOL, 129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir. 1997) 1998 D AOL service--Drudge Report Blumenthal v. Drudge, 992 F. Supp. 44 (D.D.C. 1998) 2000 D AOL e-mail Doe v. Oliver, 755 A.2d 10......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT