Clark v. Olinkraft, Inc.

Decision Date04 August 1977
Docket NumberNo. 76-1183,76-1183
Citation556 F.2d 1219
Parties15 Fair Empl.Prac.Cas. 374, 14 Empl. Prac. Dec. P 7779 Mary Evelyn CLARK, Plaintiff-Appellant, v. OLINKRAFT, INC., Defendant-Appellee.
CourtU.S. Court of Appeals — Fifth Circuit

Joe D. Guerriero, Allan L. Placke, Monroe, La., for plaintiff-appellant.

Peyton Lacy, Jr., Monroe, La., G. Phillip Shuler, III, New Orleans, La., for defendant-appellee.

Appeal from the United States District Court for the Western District of Louisiana.

Before TUTTLE, WISDOM, and COLEMAN, Circuit Judges.

WISDOM, Circuit Judge:


Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (the Act), a person seeking relief from employment discrimination is required to file a charge with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) within one hundred and eighty days after the alleged unlawful practice has occurred. 1 This appeal raises the increasingly litigated question, what constitutes a "continuing violation" of the Act for purposes of "tolling" the running of the one hundred and eighty day period.

On March 5, 1975, Mary Evelyn Clark, plaintiff-appellant, filed a charge under oath with the EEOC in which she alleged that she suffered injury while employed at Olinkraft, Inc., the defendant-appellee, because she had been denied job promotions and pay on the basis of her sex. In a written decision dated July 23, 1975, the EEOC found no reasonable cause to believe that the defendant discriminated against the plaintiff in violation of the Act. On July 23, 1975, the Commission notified Clark under the provisions of Section 706(e) of Title VII of the Act, that she had the right to bring a civil action in a United States District Court. On October 7, 1975, Clark brought the present action against Olinkraft.

Clark alleged in her complaint that Olinkraft 2 employed her on March 12, 1964 as a feeder-grabber in its paper mill operations. On October 1, 1974, a period in excess of ten years from the date of her first employment with the defendant, the plaintiff was finally promoted from feeder-grabber to the position of roll handler. Clark contended that for some time before the Spring of 1964 and for some time thereafter, her employer had an established policy or practice of promoting to better paying jobs over qualified women, men with less seniority, and of paying women a lower salary than men performing the same job. Clark also alleged that during the period from March 12, 1964, to October 1, 1974, a period in excess of ten years, the defendant continued to promote from feeder-grabber to roll handler numerous men with less seniority than she and during this period men with less seniority were paid a higher salary than she for performing the same job. Additionally, the plaintiff alleges that the unlawful employment practices of the defendant have not ceased in that the defendant continues to promote to better paying jobs men with less seniority than she, who is qualified for these better paying jobs, and continues to pay men with less seniority a greater salary for performing the same job she performs.

Olinkraft moved to dismiss the complaint on the ground that it failed to state a claim upon which relief could be granted under 42 U.S.C.A. § 2000-5(e), because "all allegations of the complaint are based on facts and events which occurred more than one hundred eighty days prior to March 5, 1975, which was the date of the filing of her charge of employment discrimination with the United States Equal Employment Commission." The basis of Olinkraft's motion was that the United Paperworkers International Union, AFL-CIO, Local Union No. 654, collective bargaining representative for the employees, on August, 1974 entered into an agreement with Olinkraft whereby a certain "affected class" of female employees, 3 of which Clark is a member, would be allowed to compete for promotions based on their company seniority. Indeed, after the signing of the agreement, Clark was promoted several times. Olinkraft argues therefore that the alleged discriminatory system and practices ceased at the time the agreement went into effect, 4 more than one hundred eighty days before the plaintiff filed her charge. Presumably on this theory, the district court granted the motion to dismiss. From this order of dismissal Clark appeals.


Initially, we note that the nature of the procedural context in which this case arises is somewhat unclear. The original motion by Olinkraft was styled as a motion to dismiss. In addition, the trial judge characterized his order as the granting of a motion to dismiss. The confusion 5 derives from the fact that Clark's deposition was also presented to the trial judge. Although it is not apparent from the order, we assume that the deposition was considered, placing this case in a summary judgment framework. See 2A Moore's Federal Practice P 12.09, at 2287-2313 (2d ed. 1975).

The allegations in the complaint bring the plaintiff's case within the accepted doctrine of continuing violations. Rich v. Martin Marietta Corp., 10 Cir. 1975, 522 F.2d 333; cf. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Western Publishing Co., 8 Cir. 1974, 502 F.2d 599; Macklin v. Spector Freight System, Inc., 1973, 156 U.S.App.D.C. 69, 478 F.2d 979; Belt v. Johnson Motor Lines, Inc., 5 Cir. 1972, 458 F.2d 443; Bartmess v. Drewrys U.S.A., Inc., 7 Cir. 1971, 444 F.2d 1186; see generally Developments in the Law-Employment Discrimination and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 84 Harv.L.Rev. 1109, 1209-1212. Clark contends not simply that the agreement between the Union and Olinkraft does not sufficiently remedy the effects of past discrimination but also that discrimination in promotion and pay constitutes a continuing and unlawful employment practice in violation of Title VII.

In the trial court, Olinkraft argued that the failure to promote does not constitute a continuing violation, relying heavily on cases holding that the failure to hire does not constitute a continuing violation. Collins v. United Airlines, 9 Cir. 1975, 514 F.2d 594; East v. Romine, Inc., 5 Cir. 1975, 518 F.2d 332. As pointed out by the court, however, in Rich v. Martin Marietta Corp., 10 Cir. 1975, 522 F.2d 333, 348, cases involving the failure to promote are distinguishable. The court in Rich commented as follows:

We finally must take up the factor of timing. The court found that in some instances there were no openings in positions for which the plaintiffs were qualified within the 90 days (now 180 days) prior to the filing of charges with the EEOC. The court apparently read McDonnell-Douglas (McDonnell-Douglas v. Green, 411 U.S. 792, 93 S.Ct. 1817, 36 L.Ed.2d 668) as saying that if an employer has employed no one during the 90 days (now 180 days) preceding the filing of charges with the EEOC, it is impossible to have an unlawful employment practice committed within the time limitations of 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-5(e).

This is in relation to the McDonnell-Douglas criterion requiring that plaintiff show that he applied for a job for which the employer was seeking applicants. Clearly this applies to new employment and is different from an employee who is seeking promotion. The former takes place on a particular day, whereas in the promotion area it invariably arises during a lengthy period of time. Plaintiffs here challenge the entire promotion system maintaining that it continually operated so as to hold them in lower echelons. Hence, the 90 day period (now 180 days) period prior to the filing of the EEOC charges looms inconsequential in this kind of case. If proven, these charges of discriminatory refusal to promote would be violative of 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-5. (Emphasis added.)

We are in accord with the views expressed in Rich. Clark's allegations, therefore, are sufficient to toll the running of the one hundred and eighty day period; here the discrimination in promotion and pay continues.

The same result obtains when the case is viewed as a summary judgment. Olinkraft contended during argument that viewed as a summary judgment, the plaintiff's only possible claim is that continuing effects of past discrimination make her filing timely and that even if this theory might be valid in some circumstances, the theory has no application in the present setting since Olinkraft's agreement with the Union provides full relief.

For several reasons, Olinkraft's argument fails. To begin with, the posture of the case does not permit us to say whether or not the Union agreement affords full relief. This is a determination to be made initially by the district court, Franks v. Bowman Transportation Co., 1976, 424 U.S. 747, 770-71, 96 S.Ct. 1251, 47 L.Ed.2d 444, and no such determination has yet been made. Second, although the validity of expanding the continuing violation theory to continuing effects of past discrimination is seriously disputed, there is some recent support for this expansion. See Evans v. United Airlines, 7 Cir. 1976, 534 F.2d 1247, cert. granted, 429 U.S. 917, 97 S.Ct. 308, 50 L.Ed.2d 282 (1976); 6 Keenan v. Pan-American World Airways (N.D.Cal.1976), 13 FEP 1530. In Evans, the Court was faced with a charge filed in February of 1973 by a plaintiff who had been terminated in 1968 because of an unlawful "no-marriage" rule. The company established this rule in 1968 and in 1972 hired plaintiff as a new employee. The plaintiff complained that she should receive seniority credit based on her prior service. The company defended on the basis that the seniority system was neutral and plaintiff's charge was untimely as to any alleged unlawful act. The en banc court reconsidered its original affirmance of the dismissal of this case in...

To continue reading

Request your trial
59 cases
  • Strong v. Demopolis City Bd. of Ed.
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — Southern District of Alabama
    • June 10, 1981
    ...discrimination occur. 66 L.Ed.2d at 439. This circuit views sex-based discrimination in pay to be a continuing violation. Clark v. Olinkraft, Inc., 556 F.2d 1219 (1977). This is so because each time the employer pays its employees on the basis of a discriminatory scale a new act of discrimi......
  • Harris v. Anaconda Aluminum Co.
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — Northern District of Georgia
    • March 30, 1979
    ...white, less qualified individuals over blacks." The court concludes that this is the proper approach after Evans. Clark v. OlinKraft, Inc., 556 F.2d 1219 (5th Cir. 1977), is cited by plaintiffs1 in support of their continuing violation theory. It does not appear to assist them, however. The......
  • Bronze Shields, Inc. v. New Jersey Dept. of Civil Service
    • United States
    • U.S. Court of Appeals — Third Circuit
    • December 28, 1981
    ...1980), cert. denied, --- U.S. ----, 101 S.Ct. 3083, 69 L.Ed.2d 954 (1981); Acha v. Beame, 570 F.2d 57 (2d Cir. 1978); Clark v. Olinkraft Inc., 556 F.2d 1219 (5th Cir. 1977); Cedeck v. Hamiltonian Federal Savings & Loan Ass'n, 551 F.2d 1136 (8th Cir. 1977); Rich v. Martin Marietta Corp., 522......
  • Berry v. Board of Sup'rs of L.S.U.
    • United States
    • U.S. Court of Appeals — Fifth Circuit
    • September 26, 1983
    ...falls within the 180 day period...." B. Schlei & P. Grossman, Employment Discrimination Law, 232 (Supp.1979); Clark v. Olinkraft, Inc., 556 F.2d 1219, 1223 (5th Cir.1977), cert. denied, 434 U.S. 1069, 98 S.Ct. 1251, 55 L.Ed.2d 772 (1978); Scarlett v. Seaboard Coast Line Railroad Co., 676 F.......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT