Davis v. State, s. 84-87

CourtCourt of Appeal of Florida (US)
Citation458 So.2d 42
Docket NumberNos. 84-87,84-164 and 84-383,s. 84-87
PartiesRobert Gene DAVIS, Appellant, v. STATE of Florida, Appellee.
Decision Date17 October 1984

Richard L. Jorandby, Public Defender, and Tatjana Ostapoff, Asst. Public Defender, West Palm Beach, for appellant.

Jim Smith, Atty. Gen., Tallahassee, and Joan Fowler Rossin, Asst. Atty. Gen., West Palm Beach, for appellee.

LETTS, Judge.

This case concerns the Sentencing Guidelines as does Mischler v. State, 458 So.2d 37 (Fla. 4th DCA 1984), issued simultaneously herewith. However, on this occasion we deal with aggravated punishment, outside the Guidelines, predicated on kidnapping, armed robbery and resisting arrest rather than the embezzlement in Mischler. Once again we reverse.

The four major reasons for departure given by the trial judge were:

1. The defendant showed no remorse.

2. His suspicion that the defendant appeared poised to commit further violence on the victim: "sexual battery, aggravated battery--could have even been murder."

3. The attack caused the victim great physical distress and emotional trauma.

4. The defendant had been convicted several times before and was a poor prospect for rehabilitation.

We disagree with reasons 1 and 2 but approve of 3 and 4.

As to the first pronouncement we held in Mischler that lack of remorse (in the face of continuous protestations of innocence) does not justify aggravation. In death cases, our Supreme Court has said the same. Pope v. State, 441 So.2d 1073, 1078 (Fla.1983).

The second ground involved the judge's speculation as to further crimes to be committed on the victim. Frankly, we think the judge was correct and it appears the victim only escaped from the moving car, in which she was abducted, because she fought like a tigress. Nonetheless, no sexual battery or murder was ever committed. Our sister court has held the possibility of further crime does not support aggravation and we agree for the reasons set forth therein. Lindsey v. State, 453 So.2d 485 (Fla. 2d DCA 1984).

In Mischler we discussed the third basis for aggravation, that is, great physical distress and emotional trauma and we approve it here. See Williams v. State, 454 So.2d 790 (Fla. 5th DCA 1984); Green v. State, 455 So.2d 586 (Fla. 2d DCA 1984); Williams v. State, 454 So.2d 751 (Fla. 1st DCA 1984). The defense argues that armed robbery by its very definition cannot help but induce trauma. This argument troubles us, but we again reiterate that the trial judge retains the right to exercise discretion under the Guidelines and we see no abuse here. The facts show something more than a simple robbery. The young male defendant chose a relatively helpless female to terrorize, kidnap and promise to kill while holding a gun at her head rendering her "madly hysterical." Little of this was required to snatch her purse and his behavior was repugnant and odious. See Mischler.

Finally, it is argued that the Guidelines already take prior convictions into account on the score sheet and the consequence here is tantamount to a double-dipping sentence. This argument also troubles us, but to accept it would remove the trial judge's right to exercise his discretion for clear and convincing reasons. As we see it, though we admit the apparent paradox in the Guidelines, our system of criminal justice is in part predicated on enhanced punishment for incorrigibles. If this be true, it cannot help but be a clear and convincing reason for aggravation, notwithstanding built-in provisions for prior criminal convictions on the score sheets. See Kiser v. State, 455 So.2d 1071 (Fla. 1st DCA 1984) and Hendrix v. State, 455 So.2d 449 (Fla. 5th DCA 1984).

Appeals from Guideline departure, despite assurances to the contrary by those who advocated their adoption, are now in full...

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40 cases
  • Mischler v. State, 84-151
    • United States
    • Court of Appeal of Florida (US)
    • October 17, 1984
    ...Speculation about possible further crimes not clear and convincing Lindsey v. State, 453 So.2d 485 (Fla. 2d DCA 1984); Davis v. State, 458 So.2d 42 (Fla. 4th DCA) issued simultaneously herewith. Violation of probation is sufficient to allow departure Carter v. State, 452 So.2d 953 (Fla. 5th......
  • Bailey v. State, 86-1054
    • United States
    • Court of Appeal of Florida (US)
    • January 23, 1990
    ...departure from the guidelines, Casteel v. State, 498 So.2d 1249 (Fla.1986); Hankey v. State, 485 So.2d 827 (Fla.1986); Davis v. State, 458 So.2d 42 (Fla. 4th DCA 1984), approved, 477 So.2d 565 (Fla.1985); Green v. State, 455 So.2d 586 (Fla. 2d DCA 1984), but not when the trauma suffered is ......
  • Reed v. State, 2D15–1458.
    • United States
    • Court of Appeal of Florida (US)
    • May 27, 2016
    ...future crimes was too speculative. See Keys, 500 So.2d at 136 ; Lindsey v. State, 453 So.2d 485, 486 (Fla. 2d DCA 1984) ; Davis v. State, 458 So.2d 42, 44 (Fla. 4th DCA 1984), approved, 477 So.2d 565 (Fla.1985). Factors like victim injury and criminal history were also unusable because they......
  • Beauvais v. State, 84-1590
    • United States
    • Court of Appeal of Florida (US)
    • October 1, 1985
    ...abuse of discretion. Albritton v. State, 476 So.2d 158, (Fla. 1985); Santiago v. State, 459 So.2d 468 (Fla. 1st DCA 1984); Davis v. State, 458 So.2d 42 (Fla. 4th DCA 1984); Higgs v. State, 455 So.2d 451 (Fla. 5th DCA 1984); Addison v. State, 452 So.2d 955 (Fla. 2d DCA Under the facts of thi......
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