Lyle v. Mladinich, N-S

Decision Date17 July 1991
Docket NumberN-S,No. 89-CA-1232,89-CA-1232
Citation584 So.2d 397
PartiesJames LYLE v. John MLADINICH, d/b/a Fiesta Night Club and d/b/a Sea-irloin Restaurant.
CourtMississippi Supreme Court

Jim W. Rose, Donald F. Rose, Gulfport, for appellant.

Jess H. Dickinson, Vaughn & Dickinson, Steven D. Slade, Franke Rainey & Salloum, Gulfport, for appellee.


PRATHER, Justice, for the Court:


The primary issues addressed in this negligence case are: (1) Whether John and A. Jake Mladinich, proprietors of a Biloxi restaurant and tavern, breached their duty to provide James Lyle, the patron or invitee, with reasonable security from criminal acts committed by third parties in the business parking lot, and (2) Whether this alleged breach was the proximate cause of Lyle's injuries. In the Harrison County Circuit Court, the trial judge resolved this issue through summary judgment in favor of the Mladiniches, and Lyle appealed. This Court reverses.


On the evening of February 12, 1986, at approximately 11:00 p.m., James Lyle entered the parking lot of the Fiesta Night Club (hereinafter "tavern") in Biloxi. As he exited his car, someone pointed a gun in his face and told him to move over. Lyle moved to the front passenger seat; the armed person got in the driver's seat; two other individuals got in the back seat. The driver handed the gun to one of the men in the back seat and drove from the parking lot. Lyle was ordered to keep his head between his legs and was taken to a house and where he was beaten and robbed. Afterwards, he was placed in the trunk of the car, and the car was left by a junkyard where it was later found. Lyle was taken to the hospital.

The tavern is owned by John Mladinich and A. Jake Mladinich, who are brothers and business partners. The brothers also own the neighboring Sea-N-Sirloin Restaurant. The two establishments share the parking lot where Lyle was accosted. On November 17, 1987, Lyle entered his original complaint against the Mladiniches alleging that they knew, or should have known, that assaults and disturbances involving patrons had taken place in the parking lot adjacent to the tavern; that they owed a duty to the patrons of the tavern to provide reasonable security; that they were negligent in failing to do so; and that the negligence was the direct cause of injury to Lyle. Lyle demanded damages in the amount of $500,000; he later amended his complaint and demanded $1,500,000.

On June 14, 1989, the Mladiniches filed a Motion for Summary Judgment and contended that Lyle had no legal basis for recovery. The thrust of their argument was that the sole proximate cause of Lyle's injuries was an independent criminal assault and that there was no evidence to support the contention that the assault was foreseeable or that the owners were negligent in not providing patrons with security in the parking lot.

In defense of the motion, Lyle deposed the Mladiniches and offered an affidavit from Chief Frank Duggan, Records Custodian of the Biloxi Police Department. Chief Duggan's affidavit contained an exhibit which was a compilation of criminal charges filed against persons from 1981 through 1989 in the Fiesta Night Club and the adjacent parking lot.

On October 27, 1989, trial judge granted the Mladiniches' motion for summary judgment. In his opinion, the judge explained that no genuine issue of fact existed as to whether the alleged breach of duty was the proximate cause of the alleged injuries. The judge cited Hertz Corp. v. Goza, 306 So.2d 657 (Miss.1974), for the premise "that an action could not be maintained on the basis of mere possibilities, surmise, or conjecture." The judge added that a jury would have to speculate to find proximate cause because Lyle presented no evidence to show that the presence of a guard could have prevented the assault and kidnapping. Lyle appealed.



Miss.R.Civ.P 56(c) provides that summary judgment shall be entered by a trial judge "if the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law." All that is required of a non-movant to survive a motion for summary judgment is to establish a genuine issue of material fact by the means available under the rule.

This Court reviews de novo the decision to grant summary judgment. Short v. Columbus Rubber & Gasket Co., 535 So.2d 61, 65 (Miss.1988). The evidentiary matters are viewed in the light most favorable to the non-movant. Palmer v. Biloxi Regional Medical Center, Inc., 564 So.2d 1346, 1354 (Miss.1990). The trial judge's decision is reversed if a triable issue of fact exists; otherwise, the decision is affirmed. Brown v. Credit Center, Inc., 444 So.2d 358, 362 (Miss.1983).

In examining Lyle's case, this Court considers the traditional elements of negligence : duty or standard of care, breach of that duty or standard, proximate causation, and damages or injury. May v. V.F.W. Post # 2539, 577 So.2d 372 (1991); Grisham v. John Q. Long V.F.W. Post, 519 So.2d 413, 416 (Miss.1988). Palmer, 564 So.2d at 1354. Lyle would have to establish each of these elements in order to be successful at trial. If a triable issue of fact regarding each of these elements exists, then the summary judgment must be reversed.


Beginning with the element of duty, a proprietor (or owner or operator) of a business owes a business patron or invitee the duty to maintain the premises in a reasonably secure or safe condition. Goodwin v. Derryberry Co., 553 So.2d 40, 43 (Miss.1989). This duty is recognized in the "slip-and-fall" area of law. However, such a duty has been expanded and modified to encompass negligent or wrongful attacks on the invitee by other patrons. The duty imposed upon a business proprietor to protect a patron from assaults by other patrons is that the business owner, though not an insurer of the invitee's safety, has a duty to exercise reasonable care to protect the invitee from reasonably foreseeable injury at the hands of other patrons. May, supra; Grisham, 519 So.2d at 417; Kelly v. Retzer & Retzer, Inc., 417 So.2d 556 (Miss.1982); see also Annotation, 43 A.L.R.4th 281 (1986); J. Landau, C. Martin, & R. Thomas, Premises Liability Sec. 4.08 (1989). As outlined in Grisham "the requisite 'cause to anticipate' the assault may arise from (1) actual or constructive knowledge of the assailant's violent nature, or (2) actual or constructive knowledge that an atmosphere of violence exists in the tavern." 519 So.2d at 416 (citations omitted).

The instant case does not involve specific knowledge of an individual's dangerous propensity; it involves criminal activity by third persons in general.

The issue of a business establishment's liability to a patron for criminal assault by a third party is discussed in Banks v. Hyatt Corporation, 722 F.2d 214 (5 Cir., 1984). Although Banks dealt with an innkeeper's liability, any business which invites the company of the public must take "reasonably necessary acts to guard against the predictable risk of assaults." 722 F.2d 214 at 227. Also see Walkoviak v. Hilton Hotels Corp., ...

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