Silverman v. Swift & Co.

CourtSupreme Court of Connecticut
Citation107 A.2d 277,141 Conn. 450
Decision Date13 July 1954
PartiesSILVERMAN et al. v. SWIFT & CO. et al. Supreme Court of Errors of Connecticut

Page 277

107 A.2d 277
141 Conn. 450
SWIFT & CO. et al.
Supreme Court of Errors of Connecticut.
July 13, 1954.

[141 Conn. 451]

Page 278

Louise Untermyer Wit, New Haven, with whom were Morris B. Straka, New Haven, and, on the brief, James F. Rosen, New Haven, for the appellants (plaintiffs).

Martin E. Gormley, New Haven, for the appellees (defendants George and Wihbey).

Before [141 Conn. 450] INGLIS, C. J., and BALDWIN, O'SULLIVAN, WYNNE and DALY, JJ.

[141 Conn. 451] BALDWIN, Associate Justice.

The plaintiffs Sidney Silverman and John and Rose Groopman brought suit against the defendant Swift and Company, an Illinois corporation, and the defendants Tofie A. George, John J. George and John G. Wihbey, partners doing business under the name of George's Market at Watertown, Connecticut. The plaintiffs alleged negligence and breach of warranty in the sale to the plaintiff Rose Groopman and to Alice Silverman, wife of the plaintiff[141 Conn. 452] Silverman, of a loin of pork infected with trichinae parasites, as a result of which all the plaintiffs contracted trichinosis. The trial court rendered judgment for the defendants. The plaintiffs have appealed from the judgment in so far as it concerns the defendant partners, hereinafter referred to as the defendant. The assignments of error pursued in the brief pertain only to a claimed right of recovery on the ground of breach of an implied warranty.

At the outset, we call attention to the allegation of the complaint stating that the plaintiffs gave due notice of the breach of warranty to all the defendants. There is, however, no finding that they did so. This alone could be fatal to their cause, because proof of notice of a breach of warranty is a condition precedent to recovery on that ground. General Statutes, § 6664; DeLucia v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co., 139 Conn. 65, 67, 89 A.2d 749. It does not appear, however, that a claim of lack of notice was presented in the trial court, and we shall consider the case upon the issues presented there and raised on this appeal.

The subordinate facts found by the trial court have not been challenged. On August 20, 1949, Sidney Silverman and his wife Alice, with Dr. John Groopman and his wife Rose, drove to the Groopman farm in Copake, New York, to spend the day. They stopped on the way at George's Market, where they purchased a loin of fresh raw pork weighing about five pounds. Upon arrival at the farm they put the meat on a spit in an outdoor open fireplace and cooked it over a wood fire for a period which they estimated to be four to four and a quarter hours. Dr. Groopman was a physician and was aware that roast pork might contain trichinae parasites, which, if present, could be rendered harmless only by adequately[141 Conn. 453] cooking the pork before it was eaten. The loin, when removed from the spit, appeared on casual inspection to be charred and black on the outside and grayish white on the inside. It is a scientific fact, demonstrated by many tests, that heat of 137 degrees Fahrenheit, when it reaches a cell of raw, fresh pork, will instantaneously kill any trichinae in it. Although the meat appeared to be adequately cooked, the method used to cook it was illadvised and not adapted to allow heat at the requisite temperature of 137 degrees to permeate all of it thoroughly. Dr. and

Page 279

Mrs. Groopman had on previous occasions prepared and cooked pork in this manner and had eaten it with no ill effects. Silverman had not eaten pork before and his wife Alice ate none on this occasion. The plaintiffs contracted trichinosis with serious and debilitating results. The method used for cooking the pork was not a proper one. Due care was not exercised to destroy the trichinae in it. Not all of the loin eaten by the plaintiffs had been subjected to a temperature of at least 137 degrees. Raw pork cannot be examined for trichinae by a packer or seller by any known and practical method and thereafter be merchantable and fit for use. The federal government conducts no inspection for trichinae in pork.

From these facts the trial court concluded (1) that there was an implied warranty by the defendant that the pork sold to the plaintiffs was fit for food provided it was properly cooked and the ordinary, commonly used precautions prevailing among the general public in the preparation of fresh pork for human food were observed, and (2) that there was no implied warranty as to the fitness for food of pork in a raw or improperly cooked state. The plaintiffs claim that the trial court erred in reaching these conclusions.

[141 Conn. 454] Actions to recover damages for the sale of pork products infected with trichinae parasites have come before the courts in many cases. It is usual in such a case for the plaintiff to sue both in negligence and for breach of warranty. See 22 Am.Jur. 878, 880. We emphasize at the outset of this discussion that the instant case is before us for consideration on the sole ground of breach of warranty and that the pork purchased was a fresh, raw loin. General Statutes, § 6630, provides that there is an implied warranty in the sale of goods sold for a particular purpose: 'When the buyer, expressly or by implication, makes known to the seller the particular purpose for which the goods are required, and it appears that the buyer relies on the seller's skill or judgment, * * * there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be reasonably fit for such purpose, and such...

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  • Hollinger v. Shoppers Paradise of New Jersey, Inc.
    • United States
    • Superior Court of New Jersey
    • March 24, 1975
    ...which courts in other jurisdictions have recognized and of which this court takes notice. Evid.R. 9(2)(d); Silverman v. Swift & Co., 141 Conn. 450, 107 A.2d 277 (Sup.Ct.Err.1954); Meyer v. Greenwood, 125 Ind.App. 288, 124 N.E.2d 870 (App.Ct.1955); Adams v. Scheib, 408 Pa. 452, 184 A.2d 700 ......
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    • Supreme Court of Connecticut
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    ...Supply Co., 158 Conn. 308, 314, 259 A.2d 608 (1969); Gryskiewicz v. Morgan, 147 Conn. 260, 159 A.2d 163 (1960); Silverman v. Swift & Co., 141 Conn. 450, 107 A.2d 277 (1954); Maltbie, supra, § 340 and cases cited therein; see also Commissioner of Finance & Control v. Whitfield, 35 Conn.Sup. ......
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    ...the statute, from the fact of purchase, that the pork was intended for human consumption is logically established. Silverman v. Swift & Co. (1954) 141 Conn. 450, 107 A.2d 277, (3, 4), 279; Baum v. Murray (1945), 23 Wash.2d 890, 162 P.2d 801 (4), 804; 'Such a transaction standing by itself p......
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