State v. Parrish

Decision Date10 March 1980
Docket NumberNos. 39950,39951,39953,s. 39950
Citation607 P.2d 778,45 Or.App. 99
PartiesSTATE of Oregon, Respondent, v. Maurice Andrew PARRISH, Appellant. ; CA 13075, 13076, 13077.
CourtOregon Court of Appeals
Gary L. Hooper, Deputy Public Defender, Salem, argued the cause for appellant. With him on the brief was Gary D. Babcock, Public Defender, Salem

James C. Rhodes, Asst. Atty. Gen., Salem, argued the cause for respondent. With him on the brief were James A. Redden, Atty. Gen., and Walter L. Barrie, Sol. Gen., Salem.

Before TANZER, P. J., and THORNTON and CAMPBELL, JJ.

TANZER, Presiding Judge.

Defendant was charged in each of six two-count indictments with one count of sale of an unregistered security and one count of fraudulent sale of securities, in violation of ORS 59.055 and 59.135, respectively. On the state's motion and over defendant's objection, three of the indictments were consolidated for trial. Defendant was convicted of the six offenses charged in the three indictments and sentenced only on the fraudulent sale counts. Defendant appeals, assigning as error the trial court's order consolidating the three indictments for trial and the admission of testimony of similar crimes committed by defendant against other persons.

The three consolidated indictments allege a sale to Roy and Colleen Schiewe (Schiewes), another to their son Mark and a third to their son Rodney. But for different victims, the latter two indictments are identical. The allegations in the first indictment differ from the other two only in The charges in all three indictments stem from a transaction in May, 1976, in which the Schiewes were induced by defendant to invest money through him in a nonexistent corporation which, according to defendant, owned an interest in logs that were rapidly appreciating in value. Defendant also falsely represented that a prominent lumberman was associated with the corporation and that the Schiewes stood to realize a substantial profit on their investment. The Schiewes paid the money to defendant and received from him a promissory note.

the names of the victims, the dates of the offenses and the amount of money for which the securities were sold. They all allege the same false statements.

Later, at Roy Schiewe's request and with him as the intermediary, defendant entered into transactions with both Mark and Rodney Schiewe which were similar to the initial one except for lesser amounts of money. Neither Mark nor Rodney talked directly with defendant about the investment, relying instead on the defendant's representations as related to them by their parents.

CONSOLIDATION

The state moved under ORS 132.560(2) 1 to consolidate all six indictments for trial, following the procedure first suggested in State v. Bishop, 16 Or.App. 310, 314, 518 P.2d 177 (1974), and later elaborated in State v. Boyd, 271 Or. 558, 533 P.2d 795 (1975). 2 The state argued in the alternative that at least the three indictments involving the Schiewe family be consolidated. Defendant opposed the motion, insisting on separate trials on each of the six indictments. The trial court ordered the three Schiewe indictments consolidated for trial, and defendant assigns that order as error.

The Supreme Court held in State v. Boyd that the test for determining whether separate charges are properly consolidated for trial as "(growing) out of a single act or transaction" is whether the charges are "unitary." See note 2, above.

" * * * (T)he trial and appellate courts will determine whether the charges are unitary by reference to their factual interrelation in terms of the Fitzgerald test." Id.

The Fitzgerald test is that

" * * * two charges arise out of the same act or transaction if they are so closely linked in time, place and circumstance that a complete account of one charge cannot be related without relating details of the other charge. * * * "

State v. Fitzgerald, 267 Or. 266, 273, 516 P.2d 1280, 1284 (1973).

There is a sufficient factual interrelation among the charges in the three indictments to support their consolidation for trial. Because the sales to Mark and Rodney were based upon defendant's representations to Defendant argues that at least the offenses against the Schiewes should have been tried separately from those against Mark and Rodney, because the transactions were about five weeks apart. The amount of time that passes between one offense and the next is not necessarily determinative, particularly in a fraud case. Rather, the decisive question under State v. Boyd, 271 Or. at 568, 533 P.2d 795, is "whether the charges are unitary." Although concurrence of time, place and circumstance are indicia of such unity, consolidation ultimately depends on whether the charges are so factually interrelated that "a complete account of one charge cannot be related without relating details of the other charge(s)." State v. Fitzgerald, 267 Or. at 273, 516 P.2d at 1284. As stated earlier, the factual interrelation of the three indictments is evident here, and their consolidation for trial was permissible.

and through their parents, it is obvious, to paraphrase Fitzgerald, that a complete account of the offenses against Mark and Rodney would necessarily include details of the same offenses against their parents. Conversely, the sale to the Schiewes is a part of, i. e., among the details of, the sale to the sons. Therefore, an account of these offenses would necessarily relate some of the details of the offenses against their sons. And last, considering that one cannot present the details of the offenses against either Mark or Rodney without relating most, if not all, of the initial transaction between their parents and...

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4 cases
  • State v. Linthwaite, s. 80-281-C
    • United States
    • Oregon Court of Appeals
    • May 26, 1981
    ...charge cannot be related without relating details of the other charge." 267 Or. at 273, 516 P.2d 1280. See also, State v. Parrish, 45 Or.App. 99, 103, 607 P.2d 778 (1980). The evidence here discloses that all of the charges consolidated for trial were closely linked in time, place and circu......
  • State v. Mitter
    • United States
    • West Virginia Supreme Court
    • December 15, 1981
    ...v. Iannello, 344 Mass. 723, 184 N.E.2d 364 (1962); Commonwealth v. Rosenthal, 211 Mass. 50, 97 N.E. 609 (1912); State v. Parrish, 45 Or.App. 99, 607 P.2d 778 (1980); Commonwealth ex rel. Conyers v. Banmiller, 193 Pa.Super. 368, 165 A.2d 278 (1960); Commonwealth v. Crandall, 145 Pa.Super. 35......
  • People v. Rogers, 86SA156
    • United States
    • Colorado Supreme Court
    • September 14, 1987
    ...only where the facts of each charge can be explained adequately only by drawing upon facts of the other charge); State v. Parrish, 45 Or.App. 99, 607 P.2d 778 (1980) (two offenses arise out of the same criminal episode if the charges are so factually interrelated that a complete account of ......
  • State v. Akau
    • United States
    • Hawaii Supreme Court
    • May 30, 2008
    ...avoid a later double jeopardy defense to further prosecution." (Citation and internal quotation marks omitted.)); State v. Parrish, 45 Or.App. 99, 607 P.2d 778, 781 (1980) (two offenses arise out of the same criminal episode if the charges are so factually interrelated that a complete accou......

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