State v. Clark, 68816

Decision Date18 July 1984
Docket NumberNo. 68816,68816
Citation351 N.W.2d 532
PartiesSTATE of Iowa, Appellee, v. Raymond CLARK, Appellant.
CourtIowa Supreme Court

Charles L. Harrington, Appellate Defender, for appellant.

Thomas J. Miller, Atty. Gen., Marcia Mason, Asst. Atty. Gen., and Dan L. Johnston, County Atty., for appellee.



This appeal presents questions of speedy trial and imposition of a third-offense penalty when the previous two convictions occurred on the same day. No claim is made that the two prior convictions arose from the same occurrence.

On November 18, 1981, the Polk County Attorney charged defendant Raymond Clark with third-offense operating a motor vehicle while intoxicated (OWI). Arraignment was scheduled for December 10, 1981, but was not held until December 18, 1981, because Clark failed to appear on the earlier date. Trial was scheduled for February 3, 1982, but Clark again failed to appear and a warrant issued on February 11, 1982, for his arrest. He was subsequently taken into custody, and on February 23, 1982, trial was rescheduled for June 1, 1982.

On March 10, 1982, Clark entered a plea of guilty. Five days later, with permission of the court, he withdrew his plea. The trial date of June 1, 1982, was then reinstated.

On the day of trial Clark filed a motion to dismiss the information based on denial of his statutory right to speedy trial. Iowa R.Crim.P. 27(2)(b). The trial court overruled the motion, and on June 3, 1982, a jury found Clark guilty of OWI. Clark stipulated that he had twice before been convicted of OWI, both convictions having occurred on January 23, 1980. The court sentenced him as a third offender to a term of imprisonment not exceeding five years. Clark appealed.

I. Speedy trial. Iowa rule of criminal procedure 27(2)(b) requires that a defendant be brought to trial within ninety days of indictment. "Indictment" encompasses a trial information. See State v. Petersen, 288 N.W.2d 332, 334 (Iowa 1980). When trial is not commenced within the ninety-day period the court must dismiss the information unless (1) the defendant has waived his right to a speedy trial, or (2) the delay is attributable to the defendant, or (3) "good cause" exists for the delay. State v. Bond, 340 N.W.2d 276, 279 (Iowa 1983); State v. Hamilton, 309 N.W.2d 471, 475 (Iowa 1981); State v. Petersen, 288 N.W.2d at 335.

We have decided several cases which have some analogy to the present one. Initially Clark was not promptly tried because of his own failures to appear, first for arraignment and later for trial. A similar situation, although more aggravated, existed in State v. Lyles, 225 N.W.2d 124 (Iowa 1975). Lyles failed to report his appearance, and his subsequent addresses were unknown. We said:

Although the State, not the defendant, has the obligation to bring a defendant to trial, delay attributable to the defendant may constitute good cause preventing the State from carrying out its obligation. The State's duty to provide a defendant a speedy trial does not require that it play a game of hide-and-go-seek with him.

In this case defendant admits he was on notice he was to appear for arraignment in district court on a certain date. When he appeared at the courthouse in response to this notice, he should have made his presence known either to the court or county attorney's office. The delay in processing his case caused by his failure to do so and his subsequent failure to advise even the pretrial release office of his various addresses is attributable to defendant, not the State.

Id. at 126 (citations omitted).

After Clark failed to appear for trial, officers rearrested him and the court reset the trial. Clark's next step was to plead guilty. Although an appeal and remand were involved, we dealt with the effect of a guilty plea on the speedy trial requirement in State v. Belieu, 314 N.W.2d 382, 384 (Iowa 1982):

Trial originally was scheduled within ninety days of our remand. Before trial commenced, defendant pleaded guilty, thereby waiving his right to trial [Iowa R.Crim.P.] 8(2)(b)(4). Of course, his right to a speedy trial derivatively was waived also. Both parties undoubtedly stopped preparing for trial. Seventy-six days later defendant withdrew his guilty plea. On the same day, July 16, 1980, trial was reset for September 22, 1980. Trial commenced on that date, which was sixty-eight days after withdrawal of the guilty plea. This period is well within our speedy trial rules, and defendant was not denied his rule 27 rights.

Clark next withdrew his guilty plea. The district court then reset the trial again, for the same date it had set prior to the guilty plea. Finally, on the day of trial Clark moved to dismiss the case as not tried within ninety days of the information. The trial date was indeed considerably beyond ninety days of the information, but it was seventy-eight days from the time Clark withdrew his plea.

We hold as in Belieu that trial was timely because it commenced within ninety days of withdrawal of the guilty plea. In analogous situations we have reached similar results. State v. Wright, 234 N.W.2d 99, 103 (Iowa 1975) (Sixty instead of ninety days allowed at that time, jury failed to agree in first trial: "We thus hold as a rule of this court that criminal cases must be retried within 60 days after mistrial, if the case is to be retried." Emphasis added.); State v. Butler, 243 N.W.2d 232 (Iowa 1976) (same; good cause shown for exceeding sixty days after mistrial); State v. Lybarger, 263 N.W.2d 545 (Iowa 1978) (mistrial for prosecutorial misconduct, Wright rule applied); State v. Hamilton, 309 N.W.2d 471 (Iowa 1981) (withdrawal of speedy trial waiver, ninety days runs from withdrawal); State v. Fisher, 351 N.W.2d 798 (Iowa 1984) (State's dismissal of prior action, ninety days runs from filing of new trial information).

The trial court did not err in overruling Clark's motion to dismiss.

II. Prior offenses. Clark's second proposition is that his two prior OWI offenses cannot be used to impose a third-offense penalty because those two convictions occurred on the same day. Third-offense OWI is a class "D" felony with a maximum penalty not exceeding five-years imprisonment and a fine of $1000. The maximum penalty for second-offense OWI is imprisonment not exceeding two years and a fine of $5000. Iowa Code §§ 321.281, 902.9(4), 903.1(1) (1981). Clark received a prison sentence not exceeding five years. No fine was imposed.

Before taking up the second proposition, however, we must decide whether we can consider it at all, as it was not raised in the trial court.

A. The question of the applicability of the third-offense provisions of section 321.281 should have been raised in the district court. Normally, failure to do so waives the issue. State v. Spoonmore, 323 N.W.2d 202, 203 (Iowa 1982). Appellate review is not precluded, however, if failure to preserve error results from a denial of the due process right to effective representation. State v. Tobin, 333 N.W.2d 842, 844 (Iowa 1983); State v. Schoelerman, 315 N.W.2d 67, 71-72 (Iowa 1982). In some instances, a mistake in failing to preserve error may be sufficiently egregious to deny defendant his right to effective assistance of counsel under the sixth and fourteenth amendments to the United States Constitution. The United States Supreme Court has recently stated the issue thus:

[F]irst, the defendant must show that counsel's performance was deficient. This requires showing that counsel made errors so serious that counsel was not functioning as the 'counsel' guaranteed the defendant by the Sixth Amendment. Second, the defendant must show that the deficient performance prejudiced the defense. This requires showing that counsel's errors were so serious as to deprive the defendant of a fair trial, a trial whose result is reliable....


As all Federal Courts of Appeals have now held, the proper standard for attorney performance is that of reasonably effective assistance....


[T]he defendant must show that there is a reasonable probability that, but for counsel's unprofessional errors, the result of the proceeding would have been different.

Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, ----, 104 S.Ct. 2052, 2064, 80 L.Ed.2d 674, 693 (1984). See State v. Rhiner, 352 N.W.2d 258 (Iowa 1984); State v. Miles, 344 N.W.2d 231, 233 (Iowa 1984).

We confronted a problem similar to the present one in State v. Schoelerman, 315 N.W.2d at 72. There, trial counsel failed to raise an issue of an erroneous charge. He did not do so despite the existence of a statute specifically applicable to the defendant which imposed a thirty-day sentence and the fact that the defendant was charged under a general statute carrying a maximum ten-year sentence. We found that counsel had a duty to raise the issue, particularly because no decisions of this court foreclosed the point. Failure to do so denied defendant his constitutional right to effective assistance of counsel. Id. at 72-73.

In the instant case, trial counsel had a basis for arguing that "offense" as used in section 321.281 is synonymous with "conviction" as it is used in our habitual offender statute, section 902.8, and consequently, a third-offense OWI penalty could not be imposed where the two previous convictions occurred the same day. State v. Barlow, 242 Iowa 714, 46 N.W.2d 725 (1951); State v. Hollins, 310 N.W.2d 216 (Iowa 1981). No decisions by this court foreclosed such an argument.

Trial counsel had a duty to prepare adequately for trial. Whether preparation is adequate depends on the particular circumstances of each case. Iowa Code of Professional...

To continue reading

Request your trial
30 cases
  • State v. Castillo-Alvarez, No. 9-324/08-0868 (Iowa App. 9/2/2009)
    • United States
    • Iowa Court of Appeals
    • September 2, 2009
    ...been indicted. The State is bound by this rule even if it files charges by trial information rather than by indictment, State v. Clark, 351 N.W.2d 532, 534 (Iowa 1984), and even if the formal charges precede the arrest, as in this case. See State v. Olson, 528 N.W.2d 651, 654 (Iowa Ct. App.......
  • State v. Neal
    • United States
    • Iowa Supreme Court
    • July 18, 1984
    ...issue resulting in a denial of effective representation. State v. Tobin, 333 N.W.2d 842, 844 (Iowa 1983). See also State v. Clark, 351 N.W.2d 532, 535 (Iowa 1984); State v. Rhiner, 352 N.W.2d 258, 261 (Iowa 1984). Thus, when the record is adequate to adjudicate an ineffectiveness claim and ......
  • Iowa Supreme Court Attorney Disciplinary Bd. v. Lustgraaf
    • United States
    • Iowa Supreme Court
    • December 17, 2010
  • State v. Smith, 95-1497
    • United States
    • Iowa Supreme Court
    • November 26, 1997 the contrary be shown. This rule also applies to charges brought by trial information. See Iowa R.Crim. P. 5(5); State v. Clark, 351 N.W.2d 532, 534 (Iowa 1984). Thus, a case not brought to trial within ninety days after indictment or filing of the trial information must be dismissed unl......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT