U.S. v. Berry

Decision Date31 January 1978
Docket Number76-2037 and 76-2038,Nos. 76-2014,s. 76-2014
Citation571 F.2d 2
PartiesUNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Stephen Michael BERRY, Robert Hugh Wilson, and Donald Gene Richardson, Defendants-Appellants.
CourtU.S. Court of Appeals — Seventh Circuit

Before PELL and BAUER, Circuit Judges, and CAMPBELL, Senior District Judge. *

BAUER, Circuit Judge.

In an opinion issued on August 24, 1977, this Court determined that the warrantless search of an arrestee's briefcase conducted after the arrest and while the briefcase was in police custody violated the Fourth Amendment under standards articulated by the Supreme Court in United States v. Chadwick, 433 U.S. 1, 97 S.Ct. 2476, 53 L.Ed.2d 538 (1977). United States v. Berry, 560 F.2d 861 (7th Cir. 1977). In response to the Government's Petition for Rehearing, we now grant the petition, and, without oral argument, vacate the earlier opinion as improvidently rendered. Our decision today rests on the conclusion that the exclusionary rule should not be applied retroactively to suppress evidence obtained from the pre-Chadwick search of an arrestee's briefcase. 1

The problem of retroactive application of the exclusionary rule in a Fourth Amendment setting was squarely faced by the Supreme Court in United States v. Peltier, 422 U.S. 531, 95 S.Ct. 2313, 45 L.Ed.2d 374 (1975). Citing two major rationales for the exclusionary rule the deterrence of Fourth Amendment violations and the "imperative of judicial integrity" the Court concluded that neither purpose would be served by excluding evidence that "law enforcement officers reasonably believed in good faith . . . was admissible at trial," even if decisions subsequent to the search "broadened the exclusionary rule to encompass evidence seized in that manner." United States v. Peltier, supra at 537, 542, 95 S.Ct. at 2317. Thus, according to the Court, the critical question in determining if the exclusionary rule should be applied retroactively on a given set of facts is not so much whether the decision invalidating the search "constitutes a sharp break in the line of earlier authority," Hanover Shoe, Inc. v. United Shoe Machinery Corp., 392 U.S. 481, 499, 88 S.Ct. 2224, 2234, 20 L.Ed.2d 1231 (1968), but rather, "(whether) the law enforcement officer had knowledge, or may properly be charged with knowledge, that the search was unconstitutional under the Fourth Amendment." United States v. Peltier, supra, 422 U.S. at 542, 95 S.Ct. at 2320.

Relying on this formulation of the inquiry, the Fifth Circuit in United States v. Montgomery, 558 F.2d 311 (5th Cir. 1977), and the Second Circuit in United States v. Reda, 563 F.2d 510 (2nd Cir. 1977), have held that Chadwick is not to be applied retroactively. We find this position persuasive for, until Chadwick, there was no reason for law enforcement officials to believe that attache cases were not among those personal effects which, under United States v. Robinson, 414 U.S. 218, 94 S.Ct. 467, 38 L.Ed.2d 427 (1973), could be seized as part of a "full search of the person" incident to a lawful arrest, and which, under United States v. Edwards, 415 U.S. 800, 94 S.Ct. 1234, 39 L.Ed.2d 771 (1974), could be searched several...

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49 cases
  • People v. Pace
    • United States
    • California Court of Appeals Court of Appeals
    • April 23, 1979
    ...F.2d 749 (attache case); United States v. Berry (7th Cir. 1977) 560 F.2d 861 (attache case), Vacated on other grounds; United States v. Berry (7th Cir. 1978) 571 F.2d 2; United States v. Vallieres (D.Conn.1977) 443 F.Supp. 186 (suitcase); United States v. Ester (S.D.N.Y.1978) 442 F.Supp. 73......
  • People v. Flores
    • United States
    • California Court of Appeals Court of Appeals
    • December 21, 1979
    ...395 U.S. 752, 763, 89 S.Ct. 2034, 2040, 23 L.Ed.2d 865; cf. U. S. v. Berry (7th Cir. 1977) 560 F.2d 861, 864, vacated on other grounds, 571 F.2d 2, cert. den. 439 U.S. 840, 99 S.Ct. 129, 58 L.Ed.2d 138) and would without more routinely condemn otherwise valid accelerated and authorized book......
  • U.S. v. Ochs
    • United States
    • U.S. Court of Appeals — Second Circuit
    • March 13, 1979
    ...States v. Choate, 576 F.2d 165, 182 n.20 (9th Cir.), Cert. denied, --- U.S. ---- 99 S.Ct. 350, 58 L.Ed.2d 344 (1978); United States v. Berry, 571 F.2d 2 (7th Cir. 1978); United States v. Montgomery, 558 F.2d 311 (5th Cir. 1977). But see United States v. Schleis, 582 F.2d 1166 (8th Cir. 1978......
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    • United States
    • New Jersey Supreme Court
    • May 19, 1980
    ...States v. Choate, 576 F.2d 165, 182 n.20 (9 Cir. 1978), cert. den. 439 U.S. 953, 99 S.Ct. 350, 58 L.Ed.2d 344 (1978); United States v. Berry, 571 F.2d 2, 3 (7 Cir. 1978) (on rehearing), cert. den. sub nom. Richardson v. United States, 439 U.S. 840, 99 S.Ct. 129, 58 L.Ed.2d 138 (1978); Unite......
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