Spann v. State, 4D99-3811.

Decision Date27 September 2000
Docket NumberNo. 4D99-3811.,4D99-3811.
Citation772 So.2d 38
PartiesCedrick E. SPANN, Appellant, v. STATE of Florida, Appellee.
CourtFlorida District Court of Appeals

Richard L. Jorandby, Public Defender, and Anthony Calvello, Assistant Public Defender, West Palm Beach, for appellant.

Robert A. Butterworth, Attorney General, Tallahassee, and Melanie Ann Dale, Assistant Attorney General, West Palm Beach, for appellee.



Appellant was convicted of battery on a law enforcement officer and challenges his sentence as a prison releasee reoffender, arguing that there was a double enhancement of his penalty and that under Oliveira v. State, 751 So.2d 611 (Fla. 4th DCA 1999), this constituted double jeopardy. We now recognize that we were wrong in Oliveira and recede from that opinion.

In Oliveira the defendant was also convicted of battery on a law enforcement officer. Section 784.07, Florida Statutes (1997), enhances the offense of battery, which is normally a misdemeanor, to a third degree felony, where it is committed on certain persons including law enforcement officers. Defendant's sentence was also enhanced under the habitual felony offender statute, and we held that this was a double enhancement which is barred by double jeopardy. As authority for that conclusion we cited Gayman v. State, 616 So.2d 17 (Fla.1993), but we now recognize that Gayman does not support that conclusion.

In Gayman, the defendant was convicted of petit theft, which was reclassified from a misdemeanor to a felony because he had two prior convictions of petit theft. Felony petit theft was subject to a maximum sentence of five years. He was then sentenced as a habitual offender, exposing him to a greater sentence than could have been imposed for felony petit theft. Gayman argued that the two enhancements violated double jeopardy; however, the supreme court rejected that argument. Gayman does not support our conclusion in Oliveira that a double enhancement is prohibited, and we have found no other authority which does support it.

In State v. Whitehead, 472 So.2d 730, 732 (Fla.1985), the defendant was convicted of second degree murder with a firearm. Section 775.087(1) provided that when a person commits a felony with a firearm the sentence is to be reclassified one category higher. Section 775.087(2) provided that people who commit specified crimes with a firearm are required to serve three years before becoming eligible for parole. In holding that applying both of these statutes was not an improper double enhancement, the court explained:

Determination of punishment for crimes is a legislative matter. Because the legislature has provided both these subsections, both are to be followed. Absent an indication from the legislature that these subsections are an either/or proposition, both subsections will be followed.

Whitehead was consistent with Missouri v. Hunter, 459 U.S. 359, 366, 103 S.Ct. 673, 678, 74 L.Ed.2d 535, 542 (1983), in which the United States Supreme Court wrote: "the Double Jeopardy Clause does no more than prevent the sentencing court from prescribing greater punishment than the legislature intended." State v. Smith, 547 So.2d 613, 614 (Fla.1989)(quoting Hunter).

In the present case, the legislature made battery, which is ordinarily a misdemeanor, a third degree felony when the victim is a law enforcement officer. § 784.07(2)(b). In section 775.082(8)(a)1.o, the legislature authorized increased sentences for defendants who qualify as prison releasee reoffenders and have committed certain felonies. Absent an ambiguity, and there is none here, the imposition of one sentence under the Prison Releasee Reoffender Act is not improper, and we recede from Oliveira.

Appellant also attacks the constitutionality of section 775.082(8)(a)1. We affirm based on State v. Cotton, 769 So.2d 345 (Fla.2000) and Rollinson v. State, 743 So.2d 585 (Fla. 4th DCA 1999),rev. granted, No. SC96713, 761 So.2d 331 (Fla. Apr.12, 2000) (Table).



FARMER, J., concurring specially with opinion.

FARMER, J., concurring.

While I concur in the court's decision today, I emphasize that Spann's challenge to his sentence would still be permissible under Apprendi v. New Jersey, 530 U.S. 466, ...

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16 cases
  • Roberts v. State, 5D05-385.
    • United States
    • Florida District Court of Appeals
    • March 24, 2006
    ...does no more than prevent the sentencing court from prescribing greater punishment than the legislature intended. Spann v. State, 772 So.2d 38, 39 (Fla. 4th DCA 2000) (quoting State v. Smith, 547 So.2d 613, 614 (Fla.1989)). In addressing a similar issue, the supreme court has concluded that......
  • Mills v. State
    • United States
    • Florida Supreme Court
    • June 20, 2002
    ...So.2d 535 (Fla.2001); Mills v. State, 773 So.2d 650 (Fla. 1st DCA 2000) (applying habitual felony offender statute); Spann v. State, 772 So.2d 38, 39-40 (Fla. 4th DCA 2000) (applying prison releasee reoffender statute); King v. State, 763 So.2d 546 (Fla. 5th DCA 2000) (applying habitual fel......
  • State v. Hearns
    • United States
    • Florida Supreme Court
    • April 26, 2007
    ...1st DCA 2004); State v. Crenshaw, 792 So.2d 582 (Fla. 2d DCA 2001); Brown v. State, 789 So.2d 366 (Fla. 2d DCA 2001); Spann v. State, 772 So.2d 38 (Fla. 4th DCA 2000); Branch v. State, 790 So.2d 437 (Fla. 1st DCA We resolve these conflicts by (A) examining the relevant statutes involved in ......
  • Jenkins v. State, 1D03-1066.
    • United States
    • Florida District Court of Appeals
    • October 11, 2004
    ...appellant's "battery on a law enforcement officer is a qualifying offense for prison releasee reoffender sentencing. See Spann v. State, 772 So.2d 38 (Fla. 4th DCA 2000)." Brown v. State, 789 So.2d 366, 367 (Fla. 2d DCA In sum, we affirm the sentence imposed for fleeing or attempting to elu......
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